Saturday, May 31, 2008

2385 - AMICOR11 - 31/05/2008

Saturday, May 31, 2008

The inflammation paradigm: Towards a consensus to explain coronary disease mortality in the 20th century.
CVD Prevention and Control (2008) 3, 69–76
Maria Ines Azambuja a,*, Aloyzio Achutti b, Richard Levins c.
a Department of Social Medicine, School of Medicine, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul,Rua Ramiro Barcelos 2600, 4/420, 90035-003 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; b Moinhos de Vento Hospital, Porto Alegre, Brazil; c Department of Population and International Health, Harvard School of Public Health, United States Labels: ,

Fumacê..., por Aloyzio Achutti*
Artigos - Fumacê..., por Aloyzio Achutti*

Friday, May 30, 2008

Social determinants of health: a call for papers
Appointed by Dr. Maria Ines Reinert Azambuja
The Lancet: Social determinants of health: a call for papersFrom the Lancet website:Social determinants of health: a call for papers On Nov 8, 2008, The Lancet will publish a theme issue devoted to the social determinants of health. We invite submission of research papers, reviews, viewpoints, and comments with an emphasis on action—what the doctor, public-health worker, policy maker, and politician can do to reduce inequalities and tackle the broad interplay of economic and social forces affecting health.This theme issue will be produced in parallel with a conference being held in London (Nov 6–7) called “Closing the Gap in a Generation: Health Equity Through Action on the Social Determinants of Health.” The conference also aims to identify actions based on recommendations set out by the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. That Commission, chaired by Michael Marmot, will publish its final report after the summer. Launched in 2005, the Commission has used an ambitious process of knowledge networks, country consultations, and wide engagement with civil society and academia to devise a global strategy to realise longstanding hopes for health equity.One telling example of the complexity the Commission will have to grapple with was provided last week by Save the Children. In its report The Road Less Travelled: Barriers to Poor Children's Healthcare Utilisation in Developing and Transitional Countries, Save the Children described how the child mortality gap is widening in the world's poorest countries. Transport can cost as much as half the total cost of health care. Corruption can be a major obstacle to preventive services, such as vaccination. And high drug prices can dissuade families from purchasing the care they need.In the Commission's interim report, Marmot described health as “a universal human aspiration and a basic human need”. Although that view commands wide medical and political support, translating this vision into a practical, realisable, and affordable plan has proven beyond the ability of most nations. The Commission's work is an opportunity to turn advocacy into action. The Lancet invites clinical and public-health scientists and practitioners to make their contribution to this unprecedented international event.
Labels:

Our cities, our health, our future
From: ruglucia@PAHO.ORG
Our cities, our health, our futureReport to the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health from the Knowledge Network on Urban Settings (KNUS) 2008Chair and Lead Writer: Tord KjellstromAvailable online as PDF file [199p.] at: http://www.who.int/social_determinants/resources/knus_final_report_052008.pdf Labels:

Tuesday, May 27, 2008

Can metabolic syndrome usefully predict cardiovascular disease and diabetes?
Prof Naveed Sattar FRCPathBackground
Labels: ,

Sunday, May 25, 2008

AMICOR11
Prezados AMICOR.
Estamos já com 11 anos e portanto as mensagens tomarão esta designação enquanto durar mais este período. Pretendemos continuar enviando periodicamente um lembrete para a lista dos Amigos do Coração, mas algumas facilitações podem ser sugeridas para quem preferir experimenta-las.
Na página do Google - e qualquer um, se não tiver ainda uma conta pode abri-la gratuitamente - basta procurar em http://www.google.com/
Uma vez aberta a conta você pode buscar logo abaixo da barra de ferramentas as direções apontadas: Geral, Calendar, Documentos, Photos, Reader, Web e more. No Reader clique em Add subscription e, mesmo que não queira usar as outras funções, pode fazer uma inscrição para receber AMICOR Sempre que algo for postado, aparecera nesta lista que poderá ser gerenciada por você como quiser.
Espero que aproveitem, mas estarei a disposição para qualquer sugestão adicional.
Um abraço.
Aloyzio Achutti
Labels:

Tobacco or Health
Image Gallery
Labels:

The inflammation paradigm: Towards a consensus to explain coronary disease mortality in the 20th century.

The inflammation paradigm: Towards a consensus to explain coronary heart disease mortality in the 20th century

CVD Prevention and Control (2008) 3, 69–76
Maria Ines Azambuja a,*, Aloyzio Achutti b, Richard Levins c
a Department of Social Medicine, School of Medicine, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul,
Rua Ramiro Barcelos 2600, 4/420, 90035-003 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; b Moinhos de Vento Hospital, Porto Alegre, Brazil; c Department of Population and International Health, Harvard School of Public Health, United States


Summary: The etiology of coronary heart disease (CHD) has been debated over the last 60 years. There exists an alternative explanation to the rise in CHD mortality, consonant with knowledge about the role of inflammation. It is proposed that a cohort association existed between rates of vulnerability to influenza deaths in 1918 and CHD mortality among survivors from those vulnerable birth cohorts.
According to this hypothesis, hypercholesterolemia may have been a marker of the 1918 immune-priming, with CHD deaths resulting from bursts of endothelial inflammation and thrombosis associated with influenza re-infections during the following decades. We propose a reconsideration of the way we model atherogenesis, from ‘‘initiation’’ and ‘‘promotion’’ to ‘‘vulnerable substrate(s)’’ and ‘‘trigger(s)’’.
Also suggested, based on this hypothesis, is a possible shared condition between vulnerable substrates, which upon triggering, is associated with evolution to acute events, through an imbalance between COX and LOX products. This paradigm has implications for global prevention policies.
2008 World Heart Federation. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Fumacê..., por Aloyzio Achutti*

Artigos - Fumacê..., por Aloyzio Achutti*
Que fumar não faz bem para a saúde, todo mundo sabe, mas não são bem avaliados ainda os riscos da fumaça produzida pelo cigarro.Muitos fumam buscando um alívio para problemas psíquicos; e pode-se imaginar que atrás da fumaça de um cigarro haja sempre alguém com problemas e, no mínimo, com baixa auto-estima. Sabendo dos riscos notórios para a saúde, ninguém que se preze pode fumar.
A nicotina tem efeitos antidepressivos e se diz que o cigarro é o psicotrópico mais largamente usado no mundo, de baixo custo - se comparado com os medicamentos - e sem necessitar prescrição médica.
Aliás, pelos médicos é proscrito, e não prescrito.
A desculpa do fumante é que "cada um se mata como pode" e que "ninguém tem nada a ver com isso". Embora defensores extremados do livre-arbítrio dos suicidas possam aceitar essa saída, não devem admitir que sejam também "assassinos" potenciais...
Na comemoração do Dia Mundial sem Tabaco, 31 de maio, é importante saber que somente 20% da fumaça produzida pela queima do cigarro o fumante aspira diretamente, o restante enche e polui o ar e termina sendo também absorvido, se o ambiente for fechado.Daí já se depreende que fumar em ambiente fechado faz muito mais mal para qualquer um do que ao ar livre.
Mas a segunda constatação é que o circunstante está exposto aos 80% da fumaça produzida e, portanto, correndo também alto risco de sofrer das mesmas conseqüências que afetam o fumante.
Isso é verdade para todos os malefícios da fumaça: bronquite, enfisema, sinusite, asma, conjuntivite, catarata, câncer de pulmão, câncer de bexiga, qualquer outro tipo de câncer, envelhecimento precoce da pele, impotência sexual, mas também para as artérias coronárias, cerebrais, das pernas, e todo o sistema circulatório.
Se alguém duvidar, e ainda não tiver perdido o olfato pela exposição crônica à fumaça, basta cheirar as roupas depois de ficar algum tempo em ambiente fechado com fumantes. Se a pessoa exposta for um cardiopata e tiver já problemas isquêmicos, as conseqüências são ainda piores, podendo acelerar-se o processo da doença e até provocar crises que podem ser fatais.
Para os fumantes inveterados, portanto, sugere-se que ao acender um cigarro, olhem para os lados, e não simplesmente peçam licença para cometer a obscenidade, mas também perguntem se há alguém com problemas cardíacos. E para esses, sugere-se que acionem o agressor na Justiça, solicitando compensação por danos físicos.
Perdoem-nos por estimular a guerra entre fumantes e não-fumantes, mas também é justo que "cada um se defenda" como pode...
*Membro da Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia

Friday, May 30, 2008

Social determinants of health: a call for papers

Appointed by Dr. Maria Ines Reinert Azambuja

The Lancet: Social determinants of health: a call for papers
From the Lancet website:

Social determinants of health: a call for papers
On Nov 8, 2008, The Lancet will publish a theme issue devoted to the social determinants of health. We invite submission of research papers, reviews, viewpoints, and comments with an emphasis on action—what the doctor, public-health worker, policy maker, and politician can do to reduce inequalities and tackle the broad interplay of economic and social forces affecting health.
This theme issue will be produced in parallel with a conference being held in London (Nov 6–7) called “Closing the Gap in a Generation: Health Equity Through Action on the Social Determinants of Health.” The conference also aims to identify actions based on recommendations set out by the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. That Commission, chaired by Michael Marmot, will publish its final report after the summer. Launched in 2005, the Commission has used an ambitious process of knowledge networks, country consultations, and wide engagement with civil society and academia to devise a global strategy to realise longstanding hopes for health equity.
One telling example of the complexity the Commission will have to grapple with was provided last week by Save the Children. In its report The Road Less Travelled: Barriers to Poor Children's Healthcare Utilisation in Developing and Transitional Countries, Save the Children described how the child mortality gap is widening in the world's poorest countries. Transport can cost as much as half the total cost of health care. Corruption can be a major obstacle to preventive services, such as vaccination. And high drug prices can dissuade families from purchasing the care they need.
In the Commission's interim report, Marmot described health as “a universal human aspiration and a basic human need”. Although that view commands wide medical and political support, translating this vision into a practical, realisable, and affordable plan has proven beyond the ability of most nations. The Commission's work is an opportunity to turn advocacy into action. The Lancet invites clinical and public-health scientists and practitioners to make their contribution to this unprecedented international event.

Our cities, our health, our future

From: ruglucia@PAHO.ORG

Our cities, our health, our future

Report to the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health from the Knowledge Network on Urban Settings (KNUS) 2008
Chair and Lead Writer: Tord Kjellstrom

Available online as PDF file [199p.] at: http://www.who.int/social_determinants/resources/knus_final_report_052008.pdf

Which aspects of urban settings influence health equity?
This KNUS report summarizes the findings concerning structural and intermediate social determinants of health that are of importance in the urban setting. The framework of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) guided the work. While unmasking the health inequities and inequalities in urban settings, it was decided at an early stage to make a strategic focus on slums and informal settlements where one billion people live in deplorable conditions.

This number may double in coming decades unless appropriate policies for economic, social and health equity are developed and implemented. An example of the health inequalities in these circumstances is the strong gradient in infant and child mortality rates within Nairobi, Kenya, with rates in the slums more than three times higher than the city average and possibly ten or more times higher than in the richer parts of the city. Other data from Africa shows that these mortality Rates among the urban poor are, on average, almost as high as the rates among the rural poor, while among the richer urban groups the rates are the lowest.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1. INTRODUCTION
2. URBANIZATION AND THE URBAN SETTING AS HEALTH DETERMINANTS
2.1 Urbanization in a global context
2.2 Slum formation with rapid urbanization
2.3 A conceptual framework for urban health
2.4 The economics of urban health development
2.5 Poverty, deprived urban living conditions and health vulnerability
2.6 Healthy urban governance
3. THE URBAN HEALTH SITUATION
3.1 Burden of disease and communicable diseases
3.2 Injuries and violence
3.3 Mental health and substance abuse
3.4 Noncommunicable diseases and nutritional disorders
4. KEY ISSUES AND CHALLENGES IN ACHIEVING HEALTH EQUITY
5. A BROAD SPECTRUM OF INTERVENTIONS
6. APPROACHES AND POLICIES TO MAKE INTERVENTIONS HAPPEN
7. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
7.1 The urban setting as a health determinant
7.2 The urban health situation
7.3 Key issues and concepts of health equity impacts
7.4 A broad spectrum of interventions
7.5 Approaches and policies to make interventions happen
ENDNOTES
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Tuesday, May 27, 2008

Can metabolic syndrome usefully predict cardiovascular disease and diabetes?

Prof Naveed Sattar FRCPath

Background

Clinical use of criteria for metabolic syndrome to simultaneously predict risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes remains uncertain. We investigated to what extent metabolic syndrome and its individual components were related to risk for these two diseases in elderly populations.

Methods

We related metabolic syndrome (defined on the basis of criteria from the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program) and its five individual components to the risk of events of incident cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes in 4812 non-diabetic individuals aged 70–82 years from the Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER). We corroborated these data in a second prospective study (the British Regional Heart Study [BRHS]) of 2737 non-diabetic men aged 60–79 years.

Findings

In PROSPER, 772 cases of incident cardiovascular disease and 287 of diabetes occurred over 3·2 years. Metabolic syndrome was not associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in those without baseline disease (hazard ratio 1·07 [95% CI 0·86–1·32]) but was associated with increased risk of diabetes (4·41 [3·33–5·84]) as was each of its components, particularly fasting glucose (18·4 [13·9–24·5]). Results were similar in participants with existing cardiovascular disease. In BRHS, 440 cases of incident cardiovascular disease and 105 of diabetes occurred over 7 years. Metabolic syndrome was modestly associated with incident cardiovascular disease (relative risk 1·27 [1·04–1·56]) despite strong association with diabetes (7·47 [4·90–11·46]). In both studies, body-mass index or waist circumference, triglyceride, and glucose cutoff points were not associated with risk of cardiovascular disease, but all five components were associated with risk of new-onset diabetes.

Interpretation

Metabolic syndrome and its components are associated with type 2 diabetes but have weak or no association with vascular risk in elderly populations, suggesting that attempts to define criteria that simultaneously predict risk for both cardiovascular disease and diabetes are unhelpful. Clinical focus should remain on establishing optimum risk algorithms for each disease.

Sunday, May 25, 2008

AMICOR11

Prezados AMICOR.

Estamos já com 11 anos e portanto as mensagens tomarão esta designação enquanto durar mais este período. Pretendemos continuar enviando periodicamente um lembrete para a lista dos Amigos do Coração, mas algumas facilitações podem ser sugeridas para quem preferir experimenta-las.

Na página do Google - e qualquer um, se não tiver ainda uma conta pode abri-la gratuitamente - basta procurar em http://www.google.com

Uma vez aberta a conta você pode buscar logo abaixo da barra de ferramentas as direções apontadas: Geral, Calendar, Documentos, Photos, Reader, Web e more. No Reader clique em Add subscription e, mesmo que não queira usar as outras funções, pode fazer uma inscrição para receber AMICOR Sempre que algo for postado, aparecera nesta lista que poderá ser gerenciada por você como quiser.

Espero que aproveitem, mas estarei a disposição para qualquer sugestão adicional.

Um abraço.

Aloyzio Achutti




Tobacco or Health

Image Gallery

Friday, May 16, 2008

2384 – AMICOR10 – 16.05.2008

Caros Amigos do Coração (AMICOR)

Amanhã passaremos a ser AMICOR11, em 17 de maio.
Acho que precisamos fazer algumas adaptações e vou aproveitar a ida ao Congresso Mundial de Buenos Aires para pensar um pouco mais no assunto.

Um abraço a todos

AA

Dear AMICOR,

Tomorrow we will be AMICOR11, May 17 eleven years of our venture.
I think we need to do some adaptation and I will take the opportunity o the travel to Buenos Aires to attend the WCC2008 to plan something more.

A hug to all of you and perhaps to meet someone during the meeting.

AA


Friday, May 16, 2008

Poster on early CVD mortality risk in Porto Alegre

Poster display number: 13 during the WCC2008

(Publication reference number: P1003)

Ecologic methods for measuring health disparities attributed to
socioeconomic factors: risk of premature CVD mortality across
geo-demographic areas of Porto Alegre, Brazil
Sérgio Luiz Bassanesi and Maria Inês Reinert Azambuja were not able de attend the Congress and I will present the Poster as a co-author.
You will be welcome to discuss it.

Labels: inequality

RF/RHD in South America ppt presentation

Dear friends,
During one week this presentation will stay in the below address to be downloaded.

http://senduit.com/02b55c

Labels: Rheumatic Fever

Thursday, May 15, 2008

Rheumatic Fever and RHD in South America

During the World Congress of Cardiology (Buenos Aires May, 18-21) I was invited to talk on Rheumatic Fever in South America during the Session "Regional Challenges for CVD around the world" (May 19 afternoon).
The slides (English) with annotations in Portuguese can be downloaded through the following address:

http://senduit.com/d49fc5

Labels: Rheumatic Fever

Pronúncia

Repasso endereço interessante enviado por uma amiga:
Berenice Goelzer

clique em "say it", o personagem vai falar o que você escreveu no idioma e no sotaque escolhido...
http://www.oddcast.com/home/demos/tts/tts_example.php

Labels: diversos

Tuesday, May 13, 2008

Public Health: inequalities measurement

The Public Health Observatory Handbook of Health Inequalities Measurement
Full electronic version
Electronic version by chapters
Order a print copy*

Labels: inequality

Atrial fibrilation and obesity

Catheter Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation in Patients With Obesity
Labels: atrial fibrilation, obesity

Posted by Aloyzio Achutti at 8:47 AM
0 comments

The Tobacco Atlas 2nd edition

The Tobacco Atlas, 2nd Edition
Dr. Judith Mackay, Dr. Michael Eriksen, Dr. Omar ShafeyBuy this book in print.View an interactive version of this atlas onlineFirst edition available online at World Health Organization.

Labels: smoking

Treatment of Restless Legs Syndrome

ROCKVILLE, Md., May 12 -- The FDA has given the go-ahead to four companies to produce generic versions of ropinirole hydrochloride (Requip) for treatment of moderate to severe restless legs syndrome.
Labels: restlessness legs

Georges Braque e o Cubismo

Georges Braque
Tentando repassar conteúdo da Britannica para o Blog.

Labels: Cubismo

Tuesday, May 06, 2008

Equitable access: research challenges for health in developing countrie

This Forum 11 report provides an overview and synthesis of the key issues discussed and conclusions reached in 2007, Beijing, People's Republic of China. Organized at the invitation of the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China, it drew 620 participants from close to 80 countries to discuss research issues, best practices and gaps in securing equitable access to health./.../

Labels: Global Health

SIGMUND FREUD

Hoje é o dia do nascimento de Sigmund Freud. Aproveito para colocar a disposição artigo da Enciclopedia Britânica.

Labels: PSYCHOANALISYS

Friday, May 02, 2008

Time: 100 most influential people

Our fifth annual list of the world's most influential people: leaders, thinkers, heroes, artists, scientists and more

Labels: people

Poster on early CVD mortality risk in Porto Alegre

Poster display number: 13 during the WCC2008

(Publication reference number: P1003)

Ecologic methods for measuring health disparities attributed to
socioeconomic factors: risk of premature CVD mortality across
geo-demographic areas of Porto Alegre, Brazil
Sérgio Luiz Bassanesi and Maria Inês Reinert Azambuja were not able de attend the Congress and I will present the Poster as a co-author.
You will be welcome to discuss it.

RF/RHD in South America ppt presentation

Dear friends,
During one week this presentation will stay in the below address to be downloaded.

http://senduit.com/02b55c

Thursday, May 15, 2008

Rheumatic Fever and RHD in South America

During the World Congress of Cardiology (Buenos Aires May, 18-21) I was invited to talk on Rheumatic Fever in South America during the Session "Regional Challenges for CVD around the world" (May 19 afternoon).
The slides (English) with annotations in Portuguese can be downloaded through the following address:

http://senduit.com/d49fc5

Pronúncia

Repasso endereço interessante enviado por uma amiga:

Berenice Goelzer
Assunto: Pronuncia

Olá,
Estou dando a dica, pois é muito útil. As vezes temos duvida quanto a uma pronuncia – pois com este, tiramos as duvidas - testei várias palavras em inglês, francês, espanhol e português (escreva e escolha o idioma) – tudo certíssimo !
Espero que seja útil abraço Berenice
__________________________________________________
Fabuloso o que o mundo da informática consegue fazer !!!
Abra o site abaixo e você vai ver uma pessoa. Passe o mouse em volta da cabeça do personagem e tanto os olhos como a cabeça do personagem vão acompanhar os movimentos Ela vai pronunciar tudo o que você escrever. Escreva uma palavra ou um texto no espaço à esquerda, usando pontuação (. , ?) e clique em "say it", o personagem vai falar o que você escreveu no idioma e no sotaque escolhido...
http://www.oddcast.com/home/demos/tts/tts_example.php

Tuesday, May 13, 2008

Public Health: inequalities measurement

The Public Health Observatory Handbook of Health Inequalities Measurement
Roy Carr-Hill and Paul Chalmers-Dixon
Edited by Jennifer Lin
This new SEPHO handbook primarily focuses on the measurement and interpretation of health inequalities. Written by Roy Carr-Hill and Paul Chalmers-Dixon of York University, it provides a comprehensive collection of material for those concerned to document and understand health inequalities.
This handbook has been published as an electronic edition. You will need to have Adobe Acrobat Reader (available free) to read the electronic edition. The full electronic version can be downloaded from the SEPHO web site or the individual chapters are available below.
Full electronic version Electronic version by chapters Order a print copy*

Atrial fibrilation and obesity

Catheter Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation in Patients With Obesity
Yong-Mei Cha MD*, Paul A. Friedman MD, Samuel J. Asirvatham MD, Win-Kuang Shen MD, Thomas M. Munger MD, Robert F. Rea MD, Peter A. Brady MD, Arshad Jahangir MD, Kristi H. Monahan RN, David O. Hodge MS, Ryan A. Meverden BS, Bernard J. Gersh MB, ChB, Stephen C. Hammill MD, and Douglas L. Packer MD

* To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: ycha@mayo.edu.

Background—Obesity is a risk factor for atrial fibrillation and other cardiovascular conditions. Our objective was to determine whether catheter-based ablation effectively treated atrial fibrillation in obese patients.

Methods and Results—Five hundred twenty-three consecutive patients with symptomatic, medication-refractory atrial fibrillation underwent catheter ablation. Patients were grouped by body mass index (lean, <25 kg/m2; overweight, 25 to 29.9 kg/m2; obese, 30 kg/m2). Outcome and quality of life were measured with a general health survey (Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form General Health Survey [SF-36]); patients were assessed before ablation and at 3 and 12 months after the procedure. Two hundred twenty-eight study patients (44%) were overweight, and 201 (38%) were obese. Twelve months after curative ablation, 72% of patients were free of atrial fibrillation without the use of antiarrhythmic agents; 84% were arrhythmia free when those receiving medication were included. Atrial fibrillation was eliminated in 75%, 72%, and 70% of the lean, overweight, and obese patients, respectively, at 12 months (P=0.41, trend test). SF-36 scores were lower for patients with higher body mass index (P<0.05) at baseline. SF-36 scores improved in every functional domain for all body mass index groups after ablation. The mean SF-36 total physical score increased from 59±20 at baseline to 77±19 in 12 months (P<0.001). The total mental health score improved from 66±18 to 79±16 in 12 months (P<0.001).

Conclusions—Catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation was effective in obese patients. Coexistence of atrial fibrillation and obesity indicated lower SF-36 scores, but the improvement in quality of life was consistent across all body mass index categories.

The Tobacco Atlas 2nd edition

The Tobacco Atlas, 2nd Edition
Dr. Judith Mackay, Dr. Michael Eriksen, Dr. Omar ShafeyBuy this book in print.View an interactive version of this atlas onlineFirst edition available online at World Health Organization.

Treatment of Restless Legs Syndrome

ROCKVILLE, Md., May 12 -- The FDA has given the go-ahead to four companies to produce generic versions of ropinirole hydrochloride (Requip) for treatment of moderate to severe restless legs syndrome.
Roxane Laboratories, in Columbus, Ohio; Teva Pharmaceuticals USA, in North Wales, Pa.; Par Pharmaceuticals, in Woodcliff Lake, N.J.; and Mylan Pharmaceuticals in Morgantown, W.Va., all received permission to make generic versions of the drug in 0.25 mg., 0.5 mg., 1 mg., 2 mg., 3 mg., and 4 mg. doses.
The FDA said, however, that the generic version was approved only for restless legs syndrome, not for treatment of Parkinsonian symptoms, an indication for the brand name drug.
GlaxoSmithKline still has a month remaining on its patent protection for treatment of Parkinson's disease, but the FDA said that makers of the generics can apply for Parkinson's labeling when that protection expires.
The generic ropinirole hydrochloride tablets will have the same safety warnings as the brand name drug including warnings about patient reports of falling asleep -- sometimes with no warning feelings of sleepiness -- while engaged in activities of daily living, including while driving.
Some of these events have been reported as late as a year after the patient started treatment.

Georges Braque e o Cubismo

Georges Braque
Tentando repassar conteúdo da Britannica para o Blog.

Tuesday, May 06, 2008

Equitable access: research challenges for health in developing countrie

This Forum 11 report provides an overview and synthesis of the key issues discussed and conclusions reached in 2007, Beijing, People's Republic of China. Organized at the invitation of the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China, it drew 620 participants from close to 80 countries to discuss research issues, best practices and gaps in securing equitable access to health./.../

SIGMUND FREUD

Hoje é o dia do nascimento de Sigmund Freud. Aproveito para colocar a disposição artigo da Enciclopedia Britânica.

Friday, May 02, 2008

Thursday, May 01, 2008

2383 - AMICOR10 - 01/05/2008

Thursday, May 01, 2008

Risk factors for myocardial infarction in women and men
Labels:
posted by Aloyzio Achutti at 4:14 PM 0 comments
Friday, April 25, 2008

VIRUSES: RISK OF LUNG CANCER
Ian Sample
guardian.co.uk,
Friday April 25 2008Article recommended by Dr. Maria Inês Reinert Azambuja

Labels: ,
posted by Aloyzio Achutti at 11:01 PM 0 comments

Ah, in the Case... Ah! neste Caso....
Claudio Schuftan
pha-exchange@phm.kabissa.org
PHA-Exch> For a bit of humor: "Ah, in that Case.."
Labels:
posted by Aloyzio Achutti at 9:51 AM 0 comments

Wealth and Income Provide Buffer against Stroke
Labels: ,
posted by Aloyzio Achutti at 9:35 AM 0 comments
Thursday, April 24, 2008

Fagerström Test x Smoking prevalence across countries
Labels:
posted by Aloyzio Achutti at 3:49 PM 0 comments
Tuesday, April 22, 2008

MAPA DIGITAL MUNICÍPIOS DO BRASIL
Labels: ,
posted by Aloyzio Achutti at 5:56 PM 0 comments
Monday, April 21, 2008

Water profile: Brazil
Content Source: Food and Agriculture Organization (other articles)
Article Topic: Water
Labels: , ,
posted by Aloyzio Achutti at 12:54 PM 0 comments
Thursday, April 17, 2008

Equity oriented Tool Kit
Labels:
posted by Aloyzio Achutti at 2:41 PM 0 comments
Wednesday, April 16, 2008

Guest Authorship and Ghostwriting in Publications Related to Rofecoxib
Labels: ,
posted by Aloyzio Achutti at 9:40 AM 0 comments

The inflammation paradigm: Towards a consensus to explain coronary heart disease mortality in the 20th century
Labels: , ,
posted by Aloyzio Achutti at 9:21 AM 0 comments

Risk factors for myocardial infarction in women and men

Aims: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading cause of death among men and women globally. Women develop CHD about 10 years later than men, yet the reasons for this are unclear. The purpose of this report is to determine if differences in risk factor distributions exist between women and men across various age categories to help explain why women develop acute MI later than men.

Methods and results: We used the INTERHEART global case–control study including 27 098 participants from 52 countries, 6787 of whom were women. The median age of first acute MI was higher in women than men (65 vs. 56 years; P <> were associated with MI in women and men. Hypertension [2.95(2.66 –3.28) vs. 2.32(2.16–2.48)], diabetes [4.26(3.68–4.94) vs. 2.67(2.43–2.94), physical activity [0.48(0.41–0.57) vs. 0.77(0.71–0.83)], and moderate alcohol use [0.41(0.34–0.50) vs. 0.88(0.82–0.94)] were more strongly associated with MI among women than men. The association of abnormal lipids, current smoking, abdominal obesity, high risk diet, and psychosocial stress factors with MI was similar in women and men. Risk factors associations were generally stronger among younger individuals compared to older women and men. The population attributable risk (PAR) of all nine risk factors exceeded 94%, and was similar among women and men (96 vs. 93%). Men were significantly more likely to suffer a MI prior to 60 years of age than were women, however, after adjusting for levels of risk factors, the sex difference in the probability of MI cases occurring before the age of 60 years was reduced by more than 80%.

Conclusion: Women experience their first acute MI on average 9 years later than men. Nine modifiable risk factors are significantly associated with acute MI in both men and women and explain greater than 90% of the PAR. The difference in age of first MI is largely explained by the higher risk factor levels at younger ages in men compared to women.