Monday, May 31, 2010

Toothbrushing less than twice a day linked to increased CV risk

Toothbrushing less than twice a day linked to increased CV risk

MAY 28, 2010 | Sue Hughes
LondonUK - Individuals who do not brush their teeth twice a day have an increased risk of heart disease, a new study shows [1].
The study was published online May 27, 2010 in BMJ; the corresponding author is Prof Richard Watt(University College London, UK).
The researchers note that while it has been established that inflammation in the body (including mouth and gums) plays an important role in the buildup of atherosclerosis, this is the first study to investigate whether the number of times individuals brush their teeth has any bearing on the risk of developing heart disease.
They analyzed data from more than 11 000 adults who took part in the Scottish Health Survey, in which individuals were asked about lifestyle behaviors such as smoking, physical activity, and oral health routines. Questions asked included how often they visited the dentist and how often they brushed their teeth (twice a day, once a day, or less than once a day). Information was also collated on medical history and family history of heart disease and blood pressure. Blood samples were taken from a subgroup of participants and tested for CRP and fibrinogen levels. The data gathered from the interviews were linked to hospital admissions and deaths./.../

Médicos e indústria

Selecionado pela AMICOR Maria Inês Reinert Azambuja

Médicos e indústria

Pesquisa do Cremesp analisa valores éticos que permeiam essa relação


Entre os médicos paulistas, 93% ganham brindes e benefícios das empresas farmacêuticas e de equipamentos e 80% recebem visitas de representantes da indústria de medicamentos. O relacionamento dos médicos paulistas com a indústria de medicamentos, órteses, próteses e equipamentos médico-hospitalares foi analisado em pesquisa inédita do Conselho Regional de Medicina do Estado de São Paulo (Cremesp), feita pelo Datafolha, entre dezembro de 2009 e janeiro de 2010, com 600 médicos de diversas especialidades.

O estudo mostrou que os médicos têm percepções diferenciadas sobre os valores éticos que permeiam a relação entre os profissionais e as empresas. Aqueles que avaliam positivamente a relação (62%), alegam que a indústria realiza bom atendimento técnico, traz novos medicamentos e informações científicas atualizadas. Também mencionam a idoneidade das empresas e a atualização científica por meio de congressos, cursos e eventos. Mas para cerca de um terço dos médicos, a relação está muito contaminada e por vezes ultrapassa os limites da ética, visão semelhante à do Cremesp sobre o tema.
A promoção de medicamentos, produtos e equipamentos pode influenciar, de forma negativa ou desnecessária, as decisões de tratamento, sendo que 33% dos médicos souberam ou presenciaram casos de pressão da indústria sobre médicos ou alguma parceria comercial considerada inadequada.
Com o estudo, o Cremesp espera ampliar o debate sobre a necessidade de mais transparência, maior divulgação do atual Código de Ética Médica e, eventualmente, de aprimoramento da regulação das relações entre os médicos e as empresas que fabricam e comercializam medicamentos, órteses, próteses e equipamentos médico-hospitalares. A partir desses resultados, haverá ainda pesquisa qualitativa e posterior Simpósio para discussão de problemas levantados.


ÍNTEGRA DA PESQUISA INÉDITA DO CREMESP SOBRE A RELAÇÃO MÉDICO-INDÚSTRIA

Sunday, May 30, 2010

Dia Mundial sem Tabaco faz alerta às mulheres

Dia Mundial sem Tabaco faz alerta às mulheres
Dia Mundial sem Tabaco faz alerta às mulheres
Elas se tornaram um dos alvos prediletos da publicidade do tabaco

Copa do Mundo de Futebol: Africa do Sul: Anvisa

Alertado pela AMICOR Dra. Maria Inês Reinert Azambuja

Prezados: segue, em anexo, documento elaborado pelo Ministério da Saúde com orientações detalhadas na área da saúde para os viajantes que se dirigem para a África do Sul com o objetivo de assistir aos jogos da COPA DO MUNDO 2010. Breve estará na página da SES/RS.
O link www.anvisa.gov.br também pode ser acessado para informações complementares.
Solicitamos dibulgação.
Att,
Marilina Bercini
Chefe da Divisão de Vigilância Epidemiológica
Centro Estadual de Vigilância em Saúde/SES-RS
Rua Domingos Crescêncio, 132 - 3º andar - sala 305
F 51 3901-1094 e 3901-1157
Fax 51 3901-1054
marilina-bercini@saude.rs.gov.br



Saturday, May 29, 2010

Toothbrushing, inflammation, and risk of cardiovascular disease

Published 27 May 2010, doi:10.1136/bmj.c2451 Cite this as: BMJ 2010;340:c2451

Research

Toothbrushing, inflammation, and risk of cardiovascular disease: results from Scottish Health Survey

Cesar de Oliveiraresearch fellow in epidemiology and public healthRichard Wattprofessor and honorary consultant in dental public healthMark Hamer,senior research fellow in epidemiology and public health 1 Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London WC1E 6BT Correspondence to: R Watt r.watt@ucl.ac.uk

Abstract

Objective To examine if self reported toothbrushing behaviour is associated with cardiovascular disease and markers of inflammation (C reactive protein) and coagulation (fibrinogen).
Design National population based survey.
Setting Scottish Health Survey, which draws a nationally representativesample of the general population living in households in Scotland.
Participants 11 869 men and women, mean age 50 (SD 11).
Main outcome measures Oral hygiene assessed from self reported frequency of toothbrushing. Surveys were linked prospectively to clinical hospital records, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the risk of cardiovascular disease events or death according to oral hygiene. The association between oral hygiene and inflammatory markers and coagulation was examined in a subsample of participants (n=4830) by using general linear models with adjustments.
Results There were a total of 555 cardiovascular disease events over an average of 8.1 (SD 3.4) years of follow-up, of which 170 were fatal. In about 74% (411) of cardiovascular disease events the principal diagnosis was coronary heart disease. Participants who reported poor oral hygiene (never/rarely brushed their teeth) had an increased risk of a cardiovascular disease event (hazard ratio 1.7, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 2.3; P<0.001) ina fully adjusted model. They also had increased concentrations of both C reactive protein (β 0.04, 0.01 to 0.08) and fibrinogen (0.08, –0.01 to 0.18).
Conclusions Poor oral hygiene is associated with higher levels of risk of cardiovascular disease and low grade inflammation, though the causal nature of the association is yet to be determined.

Friday, May 28, 2010

National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools


Welcome to the National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools (NCCMT)

We are one of six National Collaborating Centres for Public Health in Canada. The NCCMT provides leadership and expertise in sharing what works in public health.

Who is the NCCMT for?

Our primary target audiences are public health managers and professionals across Canada who promote and facilitate evidence-informed decision making. Our products and services are available and relevant to all public health practitioners, policy makers and researchers./.../

Evidence-Informed Public Health

The process of distilling and disseminating the best available evidence, whether from research or from actual practice, and using that evidence to inform and improve public health practice and policy.
Put simply, it means finding, using and sharing what works in public health.

Gender and tobacco with an emphasis on marketing to women


World No Tobacco Day 2010

World No Tobacco Day, May 31 2010: "Gender and tobacco  with an emphasis on marketing to women"

Protect women from tobacco marketing and smoke

The tobacco industry constantly and aggressively seeks new users to replace the ones who quit and the current users – up to half – who will die prematurely from cancer, heart attack, stroke, emphysema or other tobacco-related disease.
Among the industry's many targets of opportunity, women constitute one of the biggest. That's because fewer women than men smoke or chew tobacco. Only about 9% of women smoke, compared with 40% of men. Of the world's over 1 billion smokers, only about 200 million are women.
With women, the industry simply has more room to expand.
While the epidemic of tobacco use among men is in slow decline in some countries, use among women in some countries is increasing.
The future character of the gl/.../

Thursday, May 27, 2010

Ardi: The Human Ancestor Who Wasn't?


A reconstructed frontal view of Ardi
Reuters / Corbis
At a little over 4 ft. tall, she was small by human standards. But when Ardi, the 4.4 million-year-old hominid fossil found in Ethiopia in 1992, was finally introduced to the world last October in a series of 11 audacious studies in the journal Science, she caused big waves in evolutionary circles. Both TIME and Sciencenamed her the "Scientific Breakthrough of the Year." But now Ardi has found herself in a spot of controversy. Two new articles being published by Science question some of the major conclusions of Ardi's researchers, including whether this small, strange-looking creature is even a human ancestor at all./.../

Wednesday, May 26, 2010

Stop Smoking Around Me


www.youtube.com
A Public Service Announcement that highlights the dangers of smoking around children. Produced by PAHO and Brazilian cartoonist Mauricio de Sousa.
Monday at 2:49pm ·  ·  · Share · Flag

Cardiorespiratory and immune response to physical activity following exposure to a typical smoking environment


Heart 2010;96:860-864 doi:10.1136/hrt.2009.190744
  • Smoking and cardiovascular disease
    Andreas D Flouris1, Giorgos S Metsios1, Athanasios Z Jamurtas2, Yiannis Koutedakis2
    1FAME Laboratory, Institute of Human Performance and Rehabilitation, Centre for Research and Technology Thessaly, Greece2Department of Exercise Sciences, University of Thessaly, Trikala, Greece
    Correspondence to Dr Andreas D Flouris, FAME Laboratory, Institute of Human Performance and Rehabilitation, Centre for Research and Technology Thessaly, Karies, Trikala 42100, Greece;aflouris@cereteth.gr
  • Abstract
Objective Millions of non-smokers suffer daily passive smoking (PS) at home or at work, many of whom then have to walk fast for several minutes or climb a few sets of stairs. We conducted a randomised single-blind crossover experiment to assess the cardiorespiratory and immune response to physical activity following PS.
Design Data were obtained from 17 (eight women) non-smoking adults during and following 30 minutes of moderate cycling administered at baseline and at 0 hour, 1 hour and 3 hours following a 1-hour PS exposure set at bar/restaurant PS levels.
Results We found that PS was associated with a 36% and 38.7% decrease in mean power output in men and women, respectively, and that this effect persisted up to 3 hours (p<0.05). Moreover, at 0 hour almost all cardiorespiratory and immune variables measured were markedly reduced (p<0.05). For instance, FEV1 values at 0 hour dropped by 10.2% in men and 10.8% in women, while IL-5 increased by 59.2% in men and 44% in women, respectively (p<0.05). At 3-hour mean values of respiratory quotient, mean power, perceived exertion, cotinine, FEV1, IL-5, IL-6 and INFγ in both sexes, recovery diastolic and mean arterial pressure, IL-4 and TNFα in men, as well as percentage predicted FEV1 in women remained different compared to baseline (p<0.05). Also, some of the PS effects were exacerbated in less fit individuals.
Conclusion It is concluded that 1 hour of PS at bar/restaurant levels adversely affects the response to moderate physical activity in healthy non-smokers for at least 3 hours following PS.

Tuesday, May 25, 2010

Comer mal é um vício?


Comer mal é um vício ou temos escolha?
Um novo estudo sugere que a gordura cria dependência como cocaína e heroína. O guru da alimentação saudável dá 20 lições para evitar ser refém do lixo alimentar
FRANCINE LIMA (TEXTO) E SATTU (ILUSTRAÇÕES)
Revista Época
Quando alguém menciona drogas viciantes, o que vem à mente são substâncias ilegais como cocaína, crack ou heroína. Pelo que se sabe, não há níveis seguros para o consumo dessas drogas. A orientação é ficar longe delas. Desde a semana passada, a ciência médica acrescentou à lista de produtos capazes de provocar dependência algo assustadoramente próximo de nós: a comida gordurosa. Um estudo com ratos publicado na revista Nature Neurosciencesugere que o consumo de alimentos ricos em gordura leva ao desenvolvimento de um tipo de dependência parecida com a que afeta os viciados em cocaína ou heroína. O cérebro dos ratos superalimentados, assim como nos dependentes químicos, apresenta uma queda acentuada nos níveis de substâncias responsáveis pelas sensações de prazer, conhecidas como receptores de dopamina. Com menos receptores, o organismo precisa de quantidades de gordura cada vez maiores para que o cérebro registre satisfação. É o mesmo mecanismo cerebral do vício humano em drogas. A pesquisa, feita apenas em ratos, confirmou em laboratório pela primeira vez aquilo de que muitos especialistas já suspeitavam: certos tipos de comida viciam.

under-5 mortality for 187 countries, 1970—2010


The Lancet, Early Online Publication, 24 May 2010
doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60703-9Cite or Link Using DOI

Neonatal, postneonatal, childhood, and under-5 mortality for 187 countries, 1970—2010: a systematic analysis of progress towards Millennium Development Goal 4

Summary

Background

Previous assessments have highlighted that less than a quarter of countries are on track to achieve Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4), which calls for a two-thirds reduction in mortality in children younger than 5 years between 1990 and 2015. In view of policy initiatives and investments made since 2000, it is important to see if there is acceleration towards the MDG 4 target. We assessed levels and trends in child mortality for 187 countries from 1970 to 2010.

Methods

We compiled a database of 16 174 measurements of mortality in children younger than 5 years for 187 countries from 1970 to 2009, by use of data from all available sources, including vital registration systems, summary birth histories in censuses and surveys, and complete birth histories. We used Gaussian process regression to generate estimates of the probability of death between birth and age 5 years. This is the first study that uses Gaussian process regression to estimate child mortality, and this technique has better out-of-sample predictive validity than do previous methods and captures uncertainty caused by sampling and non-sampling error across data types. Neonatal, postneonatal, and childhood mortality was estimated from mortality in children younger than 5 years by use of the 1760 measurements from vital registration systems and complete birth histories that contained specific information about neonatal and postneonatal mortality.

Findings

Worldwide mortality in children younger than 5 years has dropped from 11·9 million deaths in 1990 to 7·7 million deaths in 2010, consisting of 3·1 million neonatal deaths, 2·3 million postneonatal deaths, and 2·3 million childhood deaths (deaths in children aged 1—4 years). 33·0% of deaths in children younger than 5 years occur in south Asia and 49·6% occur in sub-Saharan Africa, with less than 1% of deaths occurring in high-income countries. Across 21 regions of the world, rates of neonatal, postneonatal, and childhood mortality are declining. The global decline from 1990 to 2010 is 2·1% per year for neonatal mortality, 2·3% for postneonatal mortality, and 2·2% for childhood mortality. In 13 regions of the world, including all regions in sub-Saharan Africa, there is evidence of accelerating declines from 2000 to 2010 compared with 1990 to 2000. Within sub-Saharan Africa, rates of decline have increased by more than 1% in Angola, Botswana, Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Swaziland, and The Gambia.

Interpretation

Robust measurement of mortality in children younger than 5 years shows that accelerating declines are occurring in several low-income countries. These positive developments deserve attention and might need enhanced policy attention and resources.

processos antigos de fotografia

Achutti - Jun/2006Achutti - Mai/2010Achutti - Set/2008


Este é o novo blog/site do grupo de pesquisa em processos antigos de fotografia, o Espírito dos Sais. Aqui você encontrará imagens dos trabalhos produzidos pelo grupo, fórmulas das técnicas, exposições realizadas e textos sobre estes processos antigos e alternativos que vem sendo pesquisados desde 2006, incentivados pelo Profº. Luiz E. R. Acchutti.

Umbilical Cords Clamped Too Soon


Umbilical Cords Clamped Too Soon, Researchers Say

By Robin Nixon, LiveScience Staff Writer
posted: 24 May 2010 03:41 pm ET
Waiting until the cord stops pulsing could give the newborn significant health benefits, suggests a review article in the most recent issue of the Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine.
"Ob-gyns and parents should think about giving the cord blood to the baby," said lead researcher Paul Sanberg of the University of South Florida. "It only takes a few minutes."

Para além do crack


25 de maio de 2010 | N° 16346
 








ARTIGOS: saiu na ZH de hoje

Para além do crack, por Aloyzio Achutti*

O crack e outras substâncias capazes de causar dependência, como tabaco, cocaína, álcool e certos medicamentos, agem sobre o cérebro, mexendo com um sistema chamado de recompensa, resultando em sensação de prazer. Outros gatilhos, além da exposição a substâncias químicas de origem externa, podem desencadear internamente os mesmos fenômenos: sexo, alimentação e diversos tipos de estresse, como jogo, exercício físico, situações de perigo e violência.

Assim como a dor nos afugenta, o prazer nos leva à repetição; e a experiência também rapidamente nos ensina que para aliviar qualquer dor alguma compensação pode ser obtida usando o mesmo mecanismo de recompensa.

Em condições naturais, estes processos exigem contemporização e são relativamente mais lentos do que quando artificialmente provocados, prevenindo excessos e frustrações. Eles dependem de mediadores químicos orgânicos rapidamente esgotáveis e mecanismos de controle que exigem estímulos progressivamente mais intensos para funcionar. Seguindo este círculo vicioso, chega-se à dependência e ao comportamento patológico.

Nós, humanos, somos interdependentes. No início, e por um tempo prolongado, dependentes da mãe, até começarmos a ter consciência de nossa identidade.

A necessidade de sermos reconhecidos e de fazer parte de um grupo no qual encontramos proteção e segurança é provavelmente um arquétipo relacionado com esta relação filial, e nos acompanha por toda a vida.

A marginalização da cidadania, a percepção do não reconhecimento, a perda de laços afetivos e o abandono são circunstâncias traumáticas e nos causam dor e sofrimento, assim como a fome, qualquer doença ou ferimento. Características de nossa vida em sociedade explicam a origem de tanto uso indevido do sistema de recompensa, e não é suficiente sua repressão.

A medicina já teve desilusões semelhantes: quando surgiram os antibióticos, pensou-se que o problema das infecções estava superado. Logo se tornou evidente que não bastava dispor de uma arma para eliminar germes. Certas doenças somente atacam organismos debilitados, e de sua integridade depende o controle final.

Mesmo sabendo serem as informações acima relembradas bastante conhecidas, proponho que as utilizemos para ampliar nossa perspectiva e nossos objetivos de ação, não nos fixando apenas num jogo entre viciados, traficantes, industriais e comerciantes inescrupulosos e bandidos, mas como termômetro para medir e monitorar nosso mal-estar social.

O vício e o desvio do comportamento são expedientes alternativos que têm origem na dor da falta de identidade, de oportunidades de expressão, de perspectiva e objetivo na vida, e na impossibilidade de reconstruir laços afetivos. A repressão isolada marginaliza ainda mais, e reforça a opção equivocada que está ao alcance de cada um dentro do próprio organismo. Parte importante da solução é certamente política, e está localizada bem além dos problemas que à primeira vista se nos apresentam.
*MÉDICO

Tobacco fact sheet


Fact sheet N°339
May 2010 

Tobacco

KEY FACTS

  • Tobacco kills up to half of its users.
  • The annual death toll of more than five million could rise to more than eight million by 2030 unless urgent action is taken to control the tobacco epidemic.
  • More than 80% of the world's one billion smokers live in low- and middle-income countries.
  • Total consumption of tobacco products is increasing globally, though it is decreasing in some high-income and upper middle-income countries.

Leading cause of death, illness and impoverishment

Tobacco use is one of the biggest public health threats the world has ever faced. It kills more than five million people a year – an average of one person every six seconds – and accounts for one in 10 adult deaths. Up to half of current users will eventually die of a tobacco-related disease.
More than 80% of the one billion smokers worldwide live in low- and middle-income countries, where the burden of tobacco-related illness and death is heaviest./.../

Monday, May 24, 2010

More evidence against concept of "metabolic syndrome"


More evidence against concept of "metabolic syndrome"

MAY 20, 2010 Sue Hughes
Hamilton, ON - Patients with metabolic syndrome are no more at risk of future MI than those with diabetes or hypertension alone, a new study suggests [1].
The study, published in the May 25, 2010 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, was conducted by a group led by Dr Andrew Mente (McMaster University, Hamilton, ON).
Mente commented to heartwire: "Our study examined whether we need to look at metabolic syndrome as a distinct entity or whether we should instead be focusing on the individual risk factors, and we found that the individual risk-factor approach is probably best. The results strongly suggest that we should be treating the individual risk factors rather than metabolic syndrome."
The results strongly suggest that we should be treating the individual risk factors rather than metabolic syndrome.
In the paper, the researchers explain that the common clustering of metabolic abnormalities, including abdominal obesity, elevated glucose, abnormal lipids, and elevated blood pressure is often referred to as the metabolic syndrome. While metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, it is not known whether this risk is greater than that conferred by its constituent components, and the value of classifying subjects with metabolic syndrome has recently been called into question.
To investigate this issue, Mente et al analyzed data from the INTERHEART study, a case-control study of incident acute MI that involved 12 297 cases and 14 606 controls from 52 countries. They classified the study participants using the World Health Organization (WHO) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria for metabolic syndrome, and their risks for MI were compared with the individual metabolic-syndrome component factors. Results showed that metabolic syndrome was associated with a two- to three-times increased risk of MI, but the same risk was conferred by having either hypertension or diabetes alone./.../