Thursday, January 31, 2013

It’s Time for a Break?


How Your Brain Tells You When It’s Time for a Break

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GETTY IMAGES

New
 research published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences offers insight into how people decide when to keep going and when to take a break.  That decision apparently hinges on a specific signal that at its peak— say, when your muscles are screaming that you can’t do another rep or your brain refuses to focus on the page — prompts you to quit. And when your body and brain are refreshed and ready to go again, the signal quiets down and gets out of your way.Are you reading this when you should be working?  If so, then it may be because your brain signaled that continuing to work was not worth the cost in tedium of forcing yourself to stay on task./.../

Tuesday, January 29, 2013

Saúde Baseada em Evidências: MS


Saúde baseada em evidências
Saúde Baseada em Evidências
Criado pelo Ministério da Saúde em parceria com a Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (Capes/MEC), o Portal Saúde Baseada em Evidências reitera o compromisso do governo brasileiro de aprimorar o exercício dos trabalhadores da saúde democratizando as condições de acesso, nas suas áreas de atuação, a conteúdos cientificamente fundamentados na perspectiva de melhor atender à população.
            
Objetivo

Fornecer acesso rápido ao conhecimento científico por meio de publicações atuais e sistematicamente revisadas. As informações, providas de evidências científicas, são utilizadas para apoiar a prática clínica, como também a tomada de decisão para a gestão em saúde e qualificação do cuidado, auxiliando assim os profissionais da saúde.

Público-Alvo
Os conteúdos estão disponíveis para os profissionais de saúde vinculados ao respectivo Conselho Profissional. Terão acesso à pesquisa os profissionais das áreas de Biologia, Biomedicina, Educação Física, Enfermagem, Farmácia, Fisioterapia e Terapia Ocupacional, Fonoaudiologia, Medicina, Medicina Veterinária, Nutrição, Odontologia, Psicologia e Serviço Social.

Monday, January 28, 2013

World Heart Federation


GLOBAL LEADERS IN CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE HEALTH – PROFS K. SRINATH REDDY AND SALIM YUSUF – POISED TO DO BATTLE AGAINST THE WORLD’S NUMBER ONE KILLER

28.01.2013 09:49

GLOBAL LEADERS IN CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE HEALTH – PROFS K. SRINATH REDDY AND SALIM YUSUF – POISED TO DO BATTLE AGAINST THE WORLD’S NUMBER ONE KILLER



Geneva, 28 January 2013 – The election of two of the world’s leading experts in cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and control has given the World Heart Federation powerful leadership, and a strategic advantage, in ensuring commitments made by governments to reduce non-communicable disease (NCD) deaths by 25 per cent by 2025 are delivered on. CVD accounts for about one-third of deaths worldwide and are the leading cause of deaths and disability. Prof. Srinath K. Reddy, MD, DM, MSc took over as President and Prof. Salim Yusuf, DPhil, FRCPC, FRSC as President Elect, effective as of 1 January. 

Immediate Past President, Prof. Sidney C. Smith Jr, MD said “I am honored to have led the World Heart Federation during one of the most exciting periods in the history of CVD health. Guiding the success of the World Congress of Cardiology and participating in the United Nations High-Level Meeting on the Prevention and Control of NCDs in 2011, together with Heads of State, to help shape the global health agenda were particular highlights of my presidential term. The organization could not be handed over to more capable hands. Professor Reddy is recognized internationally as a global thought leader on issues associated with public health and CVD, and is a highly respected CVD leader in India. While Professor Yusuf born in India and now of Canada, is the second most read and talked about scientist in the world in a ranking by Science Watch.  Professors Reddy and Yusuf’s thought leadership and pioneering approaches to CVD science and its direct application to health policies will strongly position and enable the World Heart Federation to combat the world’s number one killer – CVD – which causes 17.3 million deaths each year. Their expertise will lead to new strategies, not simply follow existing approaches.” /.../

Sunday, January 27, 2013

Alice in Wonderland


Happy birthday, Lewis Carroll! Celebrate with the story of Alice Liddell, the real little girl who inspired Wonderland

2586 - AMICOR 15


Jukebox

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há um minuto
*75 MÚSICAS ORQUESTRADAS (CLÁSSICAS E POPULARES)* *http://www.saigonocean.com/nghenhacHoaTau/jukebox.swf*

Recreating Neanderthals...

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há 4 horas
Can Neanderthals be brought back from the dead?January 22, 2013 [image: 400px-George_Church_at_TED] George Church (credit: Steve Jurvetson/Wikimedia Commons) In a *SPIEGEL* interview, synthetic biology expert and Harvard University professor of genetics George Church explains how DNA will become the building material of the future — one that can help create virus-resistant human beings and possibly bring back lost species like the Neanderthal. In his new book, “*Regenesis: How Synthetic Biology Will Reinvent Nature and Ourselves*,” which he has also encoded as strands of DNA and distr... mais »

turning one form of neuron into another

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há 5 horas
Researchers turn one form of neuron into another in the brainJanuary 22, 2013 Diagram of a typical motor neuron (credit: Wikimedia Commons) A new finding by Harvard stem cell biologists turns one of the basics of neurobiology on its head — demonstrating that it is possible toturn one type of already differentiated (formed from a stem cell) neuron into another within the brain. The discovery by Paola Arlotta and Caroline Rouaux indicates that “maybe the brain is not as immutable as we always thought, because at least during an early window of time, one can reprogram the identity of on... mais »

hydrocodone abuse

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há 13 horas
FDA Panel Votes for Tighter Controls on Vicodin By Kristina Fiore, Staff Writer, MedPage Today Published: January 25, 2013 SILVER SPRING, Md. -- An FDA advisory committee voted 19 to 10 on Friday in favor of moving hydrocodone combination drugs such as Vicodin, Lortab, and Norco into the more restrictive schedule II category of controlled substances. The majority of panelists involved in the 2-day hearing believe the evidence suggests that the drugs are pharmacologically similar to and as susceptible to abuse as other opioids, such as oxycodone combination drugs like Percocet, that f... mais »

C. Schwann>>C.Tronco? M. leprae

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há 13 horas
Bactéria reprogramadora Pesquisadores revelam manobras astutas do bacilo causador da hanseníase para se espalhar pelo corpo do hospedeiro. Em sua coluna de janeiro, Stevens Rehen comenta o estudo, o primeiro a descrever a reprogramação celular a partir de uma infecção natural bacteriana. Por: Stevens Rehen Publicado em 25/01/2013 | Atualizado em 25/01/2013 [image: Bactéria reprogramadora] A bactéria ‘Mycobacterium leprae’ é causadora da hanseníase, doença que acarreta lesão neurológica caracterizada por perda sensorial e motora nos pacientes afetados. (imagem: Wikimedia Commons) Diver... mais »

ochas no BR: 3,8 bilhões de anos

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há 13 horas
Rochas de bilhões de anos Leitor da CH pergunta: "Quais são as formações geológicas mais antigas do Brasil? Como é feita a datação?" Elton Dantas, do Instituto de Geociências da Universidade de Brasília, responde. Por: Elton Dantas Publicado em 15/01/2013 | Atualizado em 22/01/2013 [image: Rochas de bilhões de anos] As rochas mais antigas do Brasil estão na região de Serra Caiada, no Rio Grande do Norte, e foram datadas com 3,5 bilhões de anos. (imagem: Google Earth) *Pergunta enviada por Gerson Santos Valadares, por correio eletrônico.* As rochas mais antigas do nosso país, e também d... mais »

DNA drive

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há 13 horas
DNA drive? Pesquisadores inserem arquivos de foto, áudio e texto em uma molécula de DNA. Apesar de promissora, a tecnologia ainda é cara e deve ser usada para conservar informações de alto valor como dados do governo. Por: Mariana Rocha Publicado em 24/01/2013 | Atualizado em 24/01/2013 [image: DNA drive?] O armazenamento de informações no DNA, embora ainda não seja viável economicamente, apresenta uma série de vantagens. Entre elas a capacidade de preservar arquivos por milhares de anos, em condições simples de manutenção. (foto: EBI)/.../

13,7 bilhões de anos em 18 minutos

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há 19 horas
* * *Do Big-Bang à INTERNET* Por Marcelo Ribeiro em 25.01.2013 as 15:43 Já explicamos em detalhes cada um destes eventos da linha do tempo do universo. Mas esta fabulosa palestra do TED recapitula de maneira eloquente como o universo cria complexidade falando sobre toda a sua história desde 13,7 bilhões de anos atrás.Como o universo veio a existir? Por que funciona desta maneira? Por que nos encontramos neste pequeno planeta cheio de vida? Se você quiser saber mais sobre a humanidade deve perguntar sobre todo o universo. Munido com belas ilustrações David Christian narra toda a histó... mais »

GENDER GAP 2012

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há 20 horas
*GENDER GAP 2012* *Full Report* The Global Gender Gap Index 2012 RICARDO HAUSMANN, Harvard University LAURA D. TYSON, University of California, Berkeley YASMINA BEKHOUCHE, World Economic Forum SAADIA ZAHIDI, World Economic Forum

US: 50-Year Trends in Smoking

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há um dia
50-Year Trends in Smoking-Related Mortality in the United States Michael J. Thun, M.D., Brian D. Carter, M.P.H., Diane Feskanich, Sc.D., Neal D. Freedman, Ph.D., M.P.H., Ross Prentice, Ph.D., Alan D. Lopez, Ph.D., Patricia Hartge, Sc.D., and Susan M. Gapstur, Ph.D., M.P.H. N Engl J Med 2013; 368:351-364January 24, 2013DOI: 10.1056/NEJMsa1211127 AbstractArticleReferencesCiting Articles (1) The disease risks from cigarette smoking increased over most of the 20th century in the United States as successive generations of first male and then female smokers began smoking at progressively ea... mais »

SIAC

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há um dia
Sociedad Interamericana de Cardiologia Top 10" de las publicaciones del año 2012 En este apartado, nuestro editor selecciona los 10 artículos que tuvieron mayor repercusión de accesos en nuestro sitio. No deje de ver esta espectacular síntesis de lo acontecido !

Collection of archaic medical terms

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há um dia
*List of Heart & Stroke Related Causes of Death* *Recommended by the AMICOR Maria Inês Reinert Azambuja* *The Genealogist's Resource for Interpreting Causes of Death.* *Antiquus Morbus is a collection of archaic medical terms and their old and modern definitions. The primary focus of this web site is to help decipher the Causes of Death found on Mortality Lists, Certificates of Death and Church Death Records from the 19th century and earlier. This web site will be updated often and as new information is received. My intention is to collect and record old medical terms in all Europe... mais »

Cigarette Smoking

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há 2 dias
New Evidence That Cigarette Smoking Remains the Most Important Health Hazard Steven A. Schroeder, M.D. N Engl J Med 2013; 368:389-390January 24, 2013DOI: 10.1056/NEJMe1213751 ArticleReferences Everyone knows cigarette smoking is bad for you. Most people in the United States assume that smoking is on its way out. But the grim reality is that smoking still exerts an enormous toll on the health of Americans, as documented in two articles in this issue of the *Journal*.1,2 Both articles review mortality trends over time for men and women according to smoking status, and both confirm that ...mais »

super-bug

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há 2 dias
The Future of Antibiotics and Resistance Brad Spellberg, M.D., John G. Bartlett, M.D., and David N. Gilbert, M.D. N Engl J Med 2013; 368:299-302January 24, 2013DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp1215093 ArticleReferences Audio Interview [image: Interview with Dr. Robert Moellering on the evolution of antibiotic resistance and strategies for combating it.] Interview with Dr. Robert Moellering on the evolution of antibiotic resistance and strategies for combating it. (20:22) - Listen - Download In its recent annual report on global risks, the World Economic Forum (WEF) concluded that “arguably th... mais »

Overcrowding?

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há 5 dias
Overcrowding? Nah — the World’s Population May Actually Be Declining By Rebecca NelsonJan. 11, 201370 Comments [image: AF5985-001]arents are restricted to havi. The number of people on the planet has grown exponentially in the past half-century alone, from 2.5 billion in 1950 to an estimated 7 billion in 2012, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. The world’s 7 billionth person, born sometime last March, elicited concern that we would run out of food and resources for everyone. An ever updating Census Bureau population clock shows the numbers rising./.../

they're ruling the world.

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há 5 dias
Women rule: 18 female leaders worldwide (PHOTOS) Not so long ago, women didn't have the right to vote. Now, they're ruling the world. Photo 1 of 18 <> [image: Park geun hye south korea 2012 12 19] South Korean President-elect Park Geun-Hye, of the ruling Saenuri Party, waves to supporters after she is declared the winner of the presidential elections on Dec. 19, 2012 in Seoul, South Korea. Park, daughter of former president Park Chung-Hee, becomes the first female president of South Korea. - [Lee Young-Ho-pool/AFP/Getty Images] - [image: Park geun hye south korea 2012 12 19] - ... mais »

Jukebox



75 MÚSICAS ORQUESTRADAS (CLÁSSICAS E POPULARES)

Recreating Neanderthals...


Can Neanderthals be brought back from the dead?

January 22, 2013
400px-George_Church_at_TED
George Church (credit: Steve Jurvetson/Wikimedia Commons)
In a SPIEGEL interview, synthetic biology expert and Harvard University professor of genetics George Church explains how DNA will become the building material of the future — one that can help create virus-resistant human beings and possibly bring back lost species like the Neanderthal.
In his new book, “Regenesis: How Synthetic Biology Will Reinvent Nature and Ourselves,” which he has also encoded as strands of DNA and distributed on small DNA chips, Church sketches out a story of a second, man-made Creation.
SPIEGEL:Mr. Church, you predict that it will soon be possible to clone Neanderthals. What do you mean by “soon”? Will you witness the birth of a Neanderthal baby in your lifetime?
Church: That depends on a hell of a lot of things, but I think so. The reason I would consider it a possibility is that a bunch of technologies are developing faster than ever before.
In particular, reading and writing DNA is now about a million times faster than seven or eight years ago. Another technology that the de-extinction of a Neanderthal would require is human cloning. We can clone all kinds of mammals, so it’s very likely that we could clone a human. Why shouldn’t we be able to do so?
(More)

turning one form of neuron into another


Researchers turn one form of neuron into another in the brain

January 22, 2013
Diagram of a typical motor neuron (credit: Wikimedia Commons)
A new finding by Harvard stem cell biologists turns one of the basics of neurobiology on its head — demonstrating that it is possible toturn one type of already differentiated (formed from a stem cell) neuron into another within the brain.
The discovery by Paola Arlotta and Caroline Rouaux indicates that “maybe the brain is not as immutable as we always thought, because at least during an early window of time, one can reprogram the identity of one neuronal class into another,” said Arlotta, an Associate Professor in Harvard’s Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology (SCRB)./.../

Saturday, January 26, 2013

hydrocodone abuse


FDA Panel Votes for Tighter Controls on Vicodin

SILVER SPRING, Md. -- An FDA advisory committee voted 19 to 10 on Friday in favor of moving hydrocodone combination drugs such as Vicodin, Lortab, and Norco into the more restrictive schedule II category of controlled substances.
The majority of panelists involved in the 2-day hearing believe the evidence suggests that the drugs are pharmacologically similar to and as susceptible to abuse as other opioids, such as oxycodone combination drugs like Percocet, that fall into the more tightly regulated class.
............................
Looking at the Numbers
Currently, hydrocodone products are the most widely prescribed agents in the U.S., accounting for 131 million prescriptions for 47 million patients in 2011./.../

C. Schwann>>C.Tronco? M. leprae


Bactéria reprogramadora

Pesquisadores revelam manobras astutas do bacilo causador da hanseníase para se espalhar pelo corpo do hospedeiro. Em sua coluna de janeiro, Stevens Rehen comenta o estudo, o primeiro a descrever a reprogramação celular a partir de uma infecção natural bacteriana.
Por: Stevens Rehen
Publicado em 25/01/2013 | Atualizado em 25/01/2013
Bactéria reprogramadora
A bactéria ‘Mycobacterium leprae’ é causadora da hanseníase, doença que acarreta lesão neurológica caracterizada por perda sensorial e motora nos pacientes afetados. (imagem: Wikimedia Commons)
Diversos patógenos intracelulares evoluíram para subverter as funções de células hospedeiras em seu próprio benefício. Entre eles incluem-se os da tuberculose, da malária e da hanseníase.
A hanseníase é uma doença crônica causada pela Mycobacterium leprae, uma bactéria em forma de bacilo que inicia sua infecção a partir das células de Schwann, o que acarreta lesão neurológica caracterizada por perda sensorial e motora nos pacientes afetados.
Células de Schwann têm esse nome em homenagem a Theodor Schwann, pesquisador alemão responsável pela teoria celular e pela descrição original dessas células gliais, presentes no sistema nervoso periférico.
As células de Schwann podem envolver os neurônios, como a borracha que encapa um fio elétrico, formando uma bainha lipídica conhecida como mielina e que facilita a transmissão do impulso nervoso.
Células de Schwann
As células de Schwann envolvem os neurônios como a borracha que encapa um fio elétrico, formando uma bainha lipídica conhecida como mielina e que facilita a transmissão do impulso nervoso. (esquema: Wikimedia Commons/ Quasar Jarosz – BY SA 3.0)/.../

ochas no BR: 3,8 bilhões de anos


Rochas de bilhões de anos

Leitor da CH pergunta: "Quais são as formações geológicas mais antigas do Brasil? Como é feita a datação?" Elton Dantas, do Instituto de Geociências da Universidade de Brasília, responde.
Por: Elton Dantas
Publicado em 15/01/2013 | Atualizado em 22/01/2013
Rochas de bilhões de anos
As rochas mais antigas do Brasil estão na região de Serra Caiada, no Rio Grande do Norte, e foram datadas com 3,5 bilhões de anos. (imagem: Google Earth)
Pergunta enviada por Gerson Santos Valadares, por correio eletrônico.
As rochas mais antigas do nosso país, e também da América do Sul, são tonalitos gnaisses que ficam na região de Serra Caiada, no Rio Grande do Norte, a 100 km de Natal. Há 10 anos essas rochas foram datadas com 3,5 bilhões de anos, nos estágios iniciais da evolução do planeta Terra, período Arqueano./.../

DNA drive


DNA drive?

Pesquisadores inserem arquivos de foto, áudio e texto em uma molécula de DNA. Apesar de promissora, a tecnologia ainda é cara e deve ser usada para conservar informações de alto valor como dados do governo.
Por: Mariana Rocha
Publicado em 24/01/2013 | Atualizado em 24/01/2013
DNA drive?
O armazenamento de informações no DNA, embora ainda não seja viável economicamente, apresenta uma série de vantagens. Entre elas a capacidade de preservar arquivos por milhares de anos, em condições simples de manutenção. (foto: EBI)/.../

13,7 bilhões de anos em 18 minutos



Por  em 25.01.2013 as 15:43
 explicamos em detalhes cada um destes eventos da linha do tempo do universo. Mas esta fabulosa palestra do TED recapitula de maneira eloquente como o universo cria complexidade falando sobre toda a sua história desde 13,7 bilhões de anos atrás.Como o universo veio a existir? Por que funciona desta maneira? Por que nos encontramos neste pequeno planeta cheio de vida? Se você quiser saber mais sobre a humanidade deve perguntar sobre todo o universo.
Munido com belas ilustrações David Christian narra toda a história do universo, desde o Big Bang à internet, em apenas 18 minutos.
Esta é a “Grande História”: uma esclarecedora e ampla visão sobre a complexidade, a vida e a humanidade, em contra-ponto à nossa exígüa existência na linha de tempo cósmica.

GENDER GAP 2012

GENDER GAP 2012

Full Report

The Global Gender Gap Index 2012
RICARDO HAUSMANN, Harvard University
LAURA D. TYSON, University of California, Berkeley
YASMINA BEKHOUCHE, World Economic Forum
SAADIA ZAHIDI, World Economic Forum

Friday, January 25, 2013

US: 50-Year Trends in Smoking


50-Year Trends in Smoking-Related Mortality in the United States

Michael J. Thun, M.D., Brian D. Carter, M.P.H., Diane Feskanich, Sc.D., Neal D. Freedman, Ph.D., M.P.H., Ross Prentice, Ph.D., Alan D. Lopez, Ph.D., Patricia Hartge, Sc.D., and Susan M. Gapstur, Ph.D., M.P.H.
N Engl J Med 2013; 368:351-364January 24, 2013DOI: 10.1056/NEJMsa1211127
Abstract
Article
References
Citing Articles (1)
The disease risks from cigarette smoking increased over most of the 20th century in the United States as successive generations of first male and then female smokers began smoking at progressively earlier ages. American men began smoking manufactured cigarettes early in the 20th century; by the 1930s, the average age at initiation fell below 18 years.1,2 Relatively few women smoked regularly before World War II; their average age at initiation continued to decrease through the 1960s. Women were not included in the earliest prospective epidemiologic studies in the 1950s,3-5 since mortality from lung cancer among women was not yet increasing in the general population.6 The landmark 1964 U.S. Surgeon General's Report concluded only that “cigarette smoking is causally related to lung cancer in men.”7 Neither sex had yet experienced the full effects of smoking from adolescence throughout adulthood./.../

SIAC

Sociedad Interamericana de Cardiologia
Top 10" de las publicaciones del año 2012
En este apartado, nuestro editor selecciona los 10 artículos que tuvieron mayor repercusión de accesos en nuestro sitio. No deje de ver esta espectacular síntesis de lo acontecido !

Collection of archaic medical terms


Recommended by the AMICOR Maria Inês Reinert Azambuja

The Genealogist's Resource for Interpreting Causes of Death.
Antiquus Morbus is a collection of archaic medical terms and their old and modern definitions.  The primary focus of this web site is to help decipher the Causes of Death found on Mortality Lists, Certificates of Death and Church Death Records from the 19th century and earlier. This web site will be updated often and as new information is received. My intention is to collect and record old medical terms in all European languages. The English and German lists are the most extensive to date.
Each term is only listed once. Check under the other headings if the term is not in the alphabetical lists. Also, try the Google search tool below.
Google

 
 Web www.antiquusmorbus.com   
 Please send me an email with any unlisted words or phrases that you have come across. They will be added to the "undefined" page after review. All new terms will eventually be added to the alphabetical lists. Please include the language that the term is from.
am happy to help transcribe and translate your hard to read Causes of Death. If possible, please include a scan of the record with your email. It is always more helpful to see the handwritten original when trying to figure out the difficult words.
Please email to me your examples of causes of death so that I can paste them into the web site. I rely on your help to make this website accurate, thorough and interesting by including your input and feedback.
email to:  Rudy's List

Thursday, January 24, 2013

Cigarette Smoking


New Evidence That Cigarette Smoking Remains the Most Important Health Hazard

Steven A. Schroeder, M.D.
N Engl J Med 2013; 368:389-390January 24, 2013DOI: 10.1056/NEJMe1213751
Article
References
Everyone knows cigarette smoking is bad for you. Most people in the United States assume that smoking is on its way out. But the grim reality is that smoking still exerts an enormous toll on the health of Americans, as documented in two articles in this issue of the Journal.1,2 Both articles review mortality trends over time for men and women according to smoking status, and both confirm that smoking remains a huge threat to the public's health.
Jha et al. review data from the U.S. National Health Interview Survey, which involved 113,752 women and 88,496 men 25 years of age or older who were interviewed between 1997 and 2004. The investigators examined the rates and causes of death by the end of 2006.1 Within the age group 25 to 79 years, the mortality of current smokers of both sexes was three times that of participants who had never smoked. Diseases attributable to smoking accounted for about 60% of smokers' deaths. The benefits of quitting smoking were dramatic for all age groups, with substantial gains in life expectancy, as compared with participants who had continued to smoke. Those who quit between the ages of 25 and 34 years lived 10 years longer; those who quit between ages 35 and 44 gained 9 years, those who quit between ages 45 and 54 gained 6 years, and those who quit between ages 55 and 64 gained 4 years. These differences persisted after adjustment for such potentially confounding variables as educational level, alcohol use, and adiposity./.../