Wednesday, July 23, 2014

Risk Factors and Dementia


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Gold Standard Trial Affirms Role of Diet, Exercise and Such to Prevent Dementia

The views expressed are those of the author and are not necessarily those of Scientific American.



(SLIDE FROM PRESS BRIEFING AT COPENHAGEN ALZHEIMER'S CONFERENCE)
In 2010, the National Institutes of Health held a conference to determine what measures, including behavioral steps like exercise and diet, could be taken to reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s. A report prepared specifically for that conference by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) made an assessment of  the existing evidence for preventive measures. It determined that there was no intervention—whether jogging, the Mediterranean diet or a long list of other factors—for which there was sufficient proof to make any convincing recommendations to physicians or their patients

Psychiatric Disorders and Inflammation

Medical News & Perspectives | 

Research on Psychiatric Disorders Targets Inflammation FREE ONLINE FIRST

M. J. Friedrich
JAMA. Published online July 23, 2014. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.8276
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New York—Activation of the immune system is the body’s natural reaction to infection or tissue damage, but when this protective response is prolonged or excessive, it can play a role in many chronic illnesses, not only of the body, but also of the brain.
“Psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders are being thought of more and more as systemic illnesses in which inflammation is involved,” noted Eric Hollander, MD, of Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York City. The cause of increased inflammation in these conditions isn’t always clear, but it has become a hot topic of investigation.
Hollander, who spoke at the annual meeting of the American Psychiatric Association held here in May, was among several investigators who discussed how immune-inflammatory mechanisms can go awry and contribute to the development of depression, schizophrenia, and autism, insights that are leading to novel experimental approaches for these and other disorders./.../

Diagnosing Fatty Liver and Chronic Kidney Disease ?

Does Diagnosing Fatty Liver and Chronic Kidney Disease Do More Good Than Harm?

  • Druin Burch mail
  • Published: July 22, 2014
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001681

Linked Research Article

This Perspective discusses the following new study published in PLOS Medicine:
Musso G, Gambino R, Tabibian JH, Ekstedt M, Kechagias S, et al. (2014) Association of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. PLoS Med 11(7): e1001680. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001680
In a systematic review and meta-analysis, Giovanni Musso and colleagues examine the association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and chronic kidney disease.
In this week's issue of PLOS Medicine, Musso and colleagues report that two conditions, both occupying increasing amounts of medical attention, may be linked [1]. Their paper demonstrates that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) even after adjustment for major shared risk factors. “Future research,” they write, “should evaluate strategies and interventions to prevent renal disease progression in individuals with NAFLD.” It's a conclusion that is both reasonable and potentially helpful./.../

Monday, July 21, 2014

Phage

The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 14, Issue 8, Page 686, August 2014
doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(14)70867-9Cite or Link Using DOI

The phage revolution against antibiotic resistance

Phage therapy: current research and applications
Jan BorysowskiRyszard MiedzybrodzkiAndrzej Gorski
Caister Academic Press2014394
£212·36. ISBN-978-1908230409
Under pressure from nature's biological warfare, human beings have long battled against pathogens. Despite extending the average human life expectancy by up to 10 years, antibiotic therapy has repercussions by giving rise to resistant bacteria. InPhage Therapy: current research and applications , the authors give an exciting account of how the humble bacteriophage could become an indispensable source of therapeutics in the future.
Since their discovery in the early 20th ce ...

Boson

Higgs boson glimpsed at work for first time

The world's largest particle collider has given us our first glimpse of the Higgs boson doing its job.
For 50 years, the Higgs boson was the final missing piece in the standard model of particle physics, which elegantly predicts how fundamental particles and forces interact. The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, was one of the detectors that helped discover the Higgsin 2012.
Now ATLAS physicists report seeing pairs of particles called W bosons scattering off each other inside the detector. This rare process can be used to test how the Higgs actually operates.
"We know these particles very well, but we have never seen them interact in this way before," says Marc-André Pleier at Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York. "With this measurement, we can check that the Higgs boson does its job."

Sunday, July 20, 2014

Hepatitis C

Viewpoint | 

New Expensive Treatments: Hepatitis C Infection

FREE ONLINE FIRST

Troyen Brennan, MD, MPH1; William Shrank, MD, MSHS1
JAMA. Published online July 20, 2014. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.8897
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Treatment of infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) has changed substantially in the last 3 years, with new therapies now reaching cure rates (defined by sustained virologic response) higher than 95%. As little as 3 years ago, treatment involved an arduous course of pegylated interferon and ribavirin, which caused serious adverse effects in more than 80% of patients; less than 50% of patients could finish the treatment course. Because HCV infection can be indolent, with slowly developing liver injury in the form of scarring and fibrosis, many patients were so-called warehoused by their physicians, followed up closely while waiting for more promising treatments.1
In 2011, introduction of the first generation of protease inhibitors, particularly telaprevir and boceprevir, heralded change. When combined with interferon and ribavirin, these medications produced much higher sustained viral responses in the HCV genotype 1 subclasses.1 However, these agents were much more expensive than standard therapy, at a cost of more than $80 000 per course of therapy, and were associated with high levels of viral resistance development if patients did not strictly adhere to therapy.
In 2014, the introduction of polymerase inhibitors set a new standard. The first in this class, sofosbuvir, manufactured by Gilead, has shown significant effectiveness when combined with ribavirin and interferon in patients with genotype 1 HCV. Sofosbuvir also can be combined with another new protease inhibitor, simeprevir, to treat patients in whom interferon-based therapy has failed. These regimens provide interferon-free treatment protocols that are shorter and well tolerated and have 80% to 95% cure rates.1 This fall, an oral combination of sofosbuvir and ledipasvir will be introduced that inhibits both the NS5B polymerase and NS5A polymerase and has been shown to reduce treatment to an 8-week course with cure rates of more than 95%.2 Now, a chronic disease that affects millions of Americans can be cured by well-tolerated oral medications.
Perhaps surprisingly, most media coverage of this important development in HCV treatment has not focused on the cure rates but, rather, on cost. The price of sofosbuvir is essentially $1000 per pill, or $84 000 for a standard 12-week course. The fact that pricing in the United Kingdom for a similar regimen is $54 000, and perhaps as low as $900 in Egypt and other developing countries,3indicates that the pricing in the United States is a purely financial decision by Gilead and has outraged many. Indeed, some pharmacy benefit managers are calling on their clients to boycott these products until alternatives are available late in 2014.4/.../

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Love People

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há 3 minutos
Love People, Not Pleasure JULY 18, 2014 Photo CreditAndrew DeGraff Continue reading the main story Arthur C. Brooks Continue reading the main storyShare This Page - Continue reading the main story Continue reading the main story ABD AL-RAHMAN III was an emir and caliph of Córdoba in 10th-century Spain. He was an absolute ruler who lived in complete luxury. Here’s how he assessed his life: “I have now reigned above 50 years in victory or peace; beloved by my subjects, dreaded by my enemies, and respected by my allies. Riches and honors, power and pleasure, have waited on my ... mais »

Políticas sobre drogas

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há uma hora
[image: flyer_abead_congresso cbabead-01-01-01]

Friends Genoma

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há 12 horas
Genome-wide analysis reveals genetic similarities among friends If you consider your friends family, you may be on to something. A study from the University of California, San Diego, and Yale University finds that friends who are not biologically related still resemble ... Biology - Evolution Jul 14, 2014 3.5 / 5 (24) 8

Today: July 18

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há um dia
*Biography of the Day* [image: Nelson Mandela.]Nelson Mandela South African black nationalist and statesman Nelson Mandela, whose long imprisonment (1962–90) and ascension to the presidency (1994–99) symbolized the aspirations of his country's black majority, was born this day in 1918. Who else was born today? Find out with *the newest version* of *our best-selling software! >>* *On This Day* [image: Adolf Hitler reviewing troops on the Eastern Front, 1939.]*1925: Publication of Mein Kampf* The first volume of *Mein Kampf*, the political manifesto written by Adolf Hitler that becam... mais »

To reduce CVD risk

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há um dia
2013 AHA/ACC Guideline on Lifestyle Management to Reduce Cardiovascular RiskA Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines Robert H. Eckel, MD, FAHA; John M. Jakicic, PhD; Jamy D. Ard, MD; Janet M. de Jesus, MS, RD; Nancy Houston Miller, RN, BSN, FAHA; Van S. Hubbard, MD, PhD; I-Min Lee, MD, ScD; Alice H. Lichtenstein, DSc, FAHA; Catherine M. Loria, PhD, FAHA; Barbara E. Millen, DrPH, RD, FADA; Cathy A. Nonas, MS, RD; Frank M. Sacks, MD, FAHA; Sidney C. Smith, MD, FACC, FAHA; Laura P. Svetkey, MD, MHS; Thomas A. Wadden, PhD... mais »

tobacco packaging

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há um dia
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The Lancet, Volume 384, Issue 9939, Pages 233 - 234, 19 July 2014 doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61210-1Cite or Link Using DOI Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved. Standardised packaging and tobacco-industry-funded research Ashok Kaul a, Michael Wolf b[image: Email Address] We recently assessed the (possible) effect of plain packaging on the smoking behaviour of young Australian individuals (aged 14—17 years).1 Our conclusion was that there is no evidence that plain packaging has lowered smoking prevalence among young Australians. Our study1 has b... mais »

Ciro de Quadros

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há um dia
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The Lancet, Volume 384, Issue 9939, Page 228, 19 July 2014 doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61202-2Cite or Link Using DOI Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved. Ciro de Quadros Geoff Watts [image: Click to toggle image size] [image: Click to toggle image size] Full-size image (62K) Sabin Vaccine Institute Public health physician who rid Latin America of polio. He was born in Rio Pardo, Brazil, on Jan 30, 1940, and died in Washington, DC, USA, on May 28, 2014, aged 74 years. The last case of polio in Latin America was detected in 1991 in the small Peru... mais »

Biological pacemaker

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há 2 dias
Science 18 July 2014: Vol. 345 no. 6194 pp. 268-269 DOI: 10.1126/science.1257976 - PERSPECTIVE TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE Improving cardiac rhythm with a biological pacemaker 1. Nikhil V. Munshi1,2,3, 2. Eric N. Olson3,4 +Author Affiliations 1. 1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. 2. 2McDermott Center for Human Growth and Development, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. 3. 3Department of Molecular Biology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. ... mais »

Lab under investigation

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há 2 dias
Science 18 July 2014: Vol. 345 no. 6194 p. 254 DOI: 10.1126/science.345.6194.254 - FEATURE Top heart lab comes under fire 1. Kelly Servick Piero Anversa is viewed as both a pioneer in the study of cardiac regeneration and an outspoken, controversial voice in a field full of disagreement. So when an ongoing internal investigation into his lab at Harvard Medical School's Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) came to light earlier this year, the field was shaken. BWH has not released details about its specific concerns, but in April, the journal *Circulation* agreed to Harvard'... mais » 

Prevention Opportunities

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há 2 dias
- Home - Current Issue - All Issues - Online First - Collections - CME - Multimedia - Quizzes - For Authors - Subscribe - Online First > Viewpoint | July 17, 2014 New Opportunities in the Changing Landscape of Prevention FREE ONLINE FIRST Derek Yach, MBChB, MPH1; Chris Calitz, MPP2 [+] Author Affiliations *JAMA*. Published online July 17, 2014. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.8900 Text Size: A A A Article References The focus of medical research has historically been on curative medicine, yielding better drugs, medical devices, and clinical procedures. P... mais »

US Best Hospitals 2014

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há 2 dias
U.S. News & World Report Announces 2014–15 Best Hospitals RankingsMayo Clinic is No. 1 on the Honor Roll. July 15, 2014 | 12:01 a.m. EDT+ More - - - Washington – July 15, 2014 – U.S. News & World Report today released the 25th edition of the annualBest Hospitals rankings, freely available at usnews.com. Best Hospitals includes key information on nearly 5,000 medical centers nationwide. For the first time, the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, claimed the No. 1 spot on the Honor Roll, followed by Massachusetts General Hospital and Johns Hopkins Hospital. Memorial Sl... mais »

Hidden Cities Report

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há 2 dias
Car@s vejam esse interessante documento “Hidden Cities report” publicado pela OMS e HABITAT Abraco *Paulo Fernando Pizá Teixeira* Visualizar o anexo who_un_habitat_hidden_cities_web.pdf who_un_habitat_hidden_cities_web.pdf

Alcohol and CVD

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há 3 dias
Full-texts[image: Association between alcohol and cardiovascular disease: Mendelian randomisation analysis based on individual participant data] Article: Association between alcohol and cardiovascular disease: Mendelian randomisation analysis b... Michael V Holmes, Caroline E Dale, Luisa Zuccolo... BMJ 07/2014 349. Michael G Marmot added a full-text to this article.View

Big Bang Black Hole

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há 3 dias
Space » Scientific American Volume 311, Issue 2 » Features - 3 - Email - Print See Inside[image: Scientific American Volume 311, Issue 2] The Black Hole That Birthed the Big Bang Is the big bang, and all that came from it, a holographic mirage from another dimension? Jul 15, 2014 |By Niayesh Afshordi, Robert B. Mann and Razieh Pourhasan *Getty Images (artist's conception)* In Brief - Cosmologists have detailed a remarkably accurate description of the history of the universe. But a few profound questions seem to defy all attempts at understanding. - One of th... mais »

Alzheimer's disease

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há 4 dias
Potential for primary prevention of Alzheimer's disease: an analysis of population-based data Sam Norton PhD a, Fiona E Matthews PhD b, Deborah E Barnes PhD c d f, Prof Kristine Yaffe MD c d e f, Prof Carol Brayne MD g [image: Corresponding Author][image: Email Address] Summary Background Recent estimates suggesting that over half of Alzheimer's disease burden worldwide might be attributed to potentially modifiable risk factors do not take into account risk-factor non-independence. We aimed to provide specific estimates of preventive potential by accounting for the association betwee... mais »

Saúde Ocular

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há 5 dias
09/07/2014 Dia Mundial da Saúde Ocular: cuidados com a visão *(Referido por Roni Quevedo)* Nesta quinta-feira, dia 10, é comemorado o Dia Mundial da Saúde Ocular. A visão é um dos principais sentidos do ser humano, responsável por cerca de 80% das informações recebidas, por isso merece atenção e cuidados especiais. De acordo com a oftalmologista e professora da Universidade Católica de Pelotas (UCPel), Rosângela Rosa da Rosa, alguns cuidados podem ser tomados para a prevenção de doenças e traumas oculares. A professora destaca que a procura pelo oftalmologis... mais »