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Friday, November 16, 2018

low-quality health systems

Mortality due to low-quality health systems in the universal health coverage era: a systematic analysis of amenable deaths in 137 countries 
Open Access
Summary

Background

Universal health coverage has been proposed as a strategy to improve health in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, this is contingent on the provision of good-quality health care. We estimate the excess mortality for conditions targeted in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) that are amenable to health care and the portion of this excess mortality due to poor-quality care in 137 LMICs, in which excess mortality refers to deaths that could have been averted in settings with strong health systems.

Methods

Using data from the 2016 Global Burden of Disease study, we calculated mortality amenable to personal health care for 61 SDG conditions by comparing case fatality between each LMIC with corresponding numbers from 23 high-income reference countries with strong health systems. We used data on health-care utilisation from population surveys to separately estimate the portion of amenable mortality attributable to non-utilisation of health care versus that attributable to receipt of poor-quality care.

Findings

15·6 million excess deaths from 61 conditions occurred in LMICs in 2016. After excluding deaths that could be prevented through public health measures, 8·6 million excess deaths were amenable to health care of which 5·0 million were estimated to be due to receipt of poor-quality care and 3·6 million were due to non-utilisation of health care. Poor quality of health care was a major driver of excess mortality across conditions, from cardiovascular disease and injuries to neonatal and communicable disorders.

Interpretation

Universal health coverage for SDG conditions could avert 8·6 million deaths per year but only if expansion of service coverage is accompanied by investments into high-quality health systems.

Funding

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Global Health 2018

Global Health 50/50 Report (2018)

The Global Health 50/50 Report, the first of its kind, provides a comprehensive review of the gender-related policies of more than 140 major organisations working in and/or influencing the field of global health. The initiative is focused at the intersection of several Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), including on health (3), gender equality (5), inequalities (10) and inclusive societies and institutions (16).
Gender equality has seemingly been embraced as a priority in global health. The report is inspired, however, by a growing concern that too few global health organisations walk the talk by defining, programming, resourcing or monitoring gender, either as a determinant of health, or as a driver of career equality in their own workplaces.
The Global Health 50/50 Report provides a benchmark across the sector to catalyse shifts in organisational and management culture and practice, the adoption of gender-responsive policies, and ensuring adequate resources for programmes focusing on the gendered dynamics of global health. It seeks to provide evidence of where the gaps lie, while shining a light on ways forward.Global Health 50/50 Report 2018Explore the 2018 Data
Download the 2018 Report presentation (PPT)
Download the 2018 Report presentation (PDF)
Read the press release

Thursday, November 15, 2018

Declaração Universal dos Direitos Humanos (1948)


ONU publica textos explicativos sobre cada artigo da Declaração Universal dos Direitos Humanos

 AUMENTAR LETRA DIMINUIR LETRA

A Declaração Universal dos Direitos Humanos (DUDH) foi adotada em 10 de dezembro de 1948. Para marcar o aniversário, nas próximas semanas, o Escritório do Alto Comissariado da ONU para os Direitos Humanos (ACNUDH) publicará textos informativos sobre cada um de seus 30 artigos. A série tentará mostrar aonde chegamos, até onde devemos ir e como honrar aqueles que ajudaram a dar vida a tais aspirações.
Embora o mundo tenha mudado drasticamente em 70 anos — os redatores não previram os desafios da privacidade digital, da inteligência artificial ou da mudança climática —, o foco da Declaração na dignidade humana continua a fornecer uma base sólida para a evolução dos conceitos de liberdade.
A Declaração Universal dos Direitos Humanos completa 70 anos em 2018. Frame do filme "A Declaração Universal dos Direitos Humanos". Imagem: ONU
A Declaração Universal dos Direitos Humanos completa 70 anos em 2018. Frame do filme “A Declaração Universal dos Direitos Humanos”. Imagem: ONU
Já se passaram 70 anos desde que líderes mundiais determinaram explicitamente quais direitos todos no planeta poderiam esperar e exigir simplesmente por serem humanos. Nascida do desejo de impedir outro Holocausto, a Declaração Universal dos Direitos Humanos continua a demonstrar o poder das ideias para mudar o mundo.
A Declaração Universal dos Direitos Humanos (DUDH) foi adotada em 10 de dezembro de 1948. Para marcar o aniversário, nas próximas semanas, o Escritório do Alto Comissariado da ONU para os Direitos Humanos (ACNUDH) publicará textos informativos sobre cada um de seus artigos. A série tentará mostrar até onde chegamos, até onde devemos ir e o que fazer para honrar aqueles que ajudaram a dar vida a tais aspirações.
Mais notícias de: 

compulsive sexual behavior disorder (CSBD

November 9, 2018

Prevalence of Distress Associated With Difficulty Controlling Sexual Urges, Feelings, and Behaviors in the United States

JAMA Netw Open. 2018;1(7):e184468. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.4468

Conclusions and Relevance  The high prevalence of this prominent feature associated with compulsive sexual behavior disorder has important implications for health care professionals and society. Health care professionals should be alert to the high number of people who are distressed about their sexual behavior, carefully assess the nature of the problem within its sociocultural context, and find appropriate treatments for both men and women.

Conclusions

This study was the first we know of to document the US national prevalence of distress associated with difficulty controlling one’s sexual thoughts, feelings, and behaviors—the key feature of CSBD. The high prevalence of this sexual symptom has major public health relevance as a sociocultural problem and indicates a significant clinical problem that warrants attention from health care professionals. Moreover, gender, sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, and income differences suggest potential health disparities, point to the salience of sociocultural context of CSBD, and argue for a treatment approach that accounts for minority health, gender ideology, and sociocultural norms and values surrounding sexuality and gender. Health care professionals should be alert to the high number of people who are distressed about their sexual behavior, carefully assess the nature of the problem, and find appropriate treatments for both men and women.

Sperm chemotaxis

How Sperm Find Their Way

by Neuroscience News
Researchers have identified a specific protein in the cell membranes of sperm that help them navigate their way to the egg for fertilization.
Neuroscience News | November 15, 2018 at 11:51 am | Tags: Ca2+-ATPaseCaloxin 2A1PMCASAAFsperm chemotaxisspermatoza | URL: https://wp.me/p4sXNK-dEj


This figure depicts how University of Tokyo researchers believe sperm cells navigate thanks to PMCA (plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase) and SAAF (sperm activating and attracting factor). NeuroscienceNews.com image is credited to Manabu Yoshida, The University of Tokyo.

TED Videos

Tableaux Vivants: Caravaggio and more

Big-Bang

A Universe that expands and cools today, like ours does, must have been hotter and denser in the past. Initially, the Big Bang was regarded as the singularity from which this ultimate, hot, dense state emerged. But we know better today. Image credit: NASA / GSFC.

The Big Bang Wasn’t The Beginning, After All

Why you can’t extrapolate back to a singularity.


“Despite its name, the big bang theory is not really a theory of a bang at all. It is really only a theory of the aftermath of a bang.” -Alan Guth
The Universe began not with a whimper, but with a bang! At least, that’s what you’re commonly told: the Universe and everything in it came into existence at the moment of the Big Bang. Space, time, and all the matter and energy within began from a singular point, and then expanded and cooled, giving rise over billions of years to the atoms, stars, galaxies, and clusters of galaxies spread out across the billions of light years that make up our observable Universe. It’s a compelling, beautiful picture that explains so much of what we see, from the present large-scale structure of the Universe’s two trillion galaxies to the leftover glow of radiation permeating all of existence. Unfortunately, it’s also wrong, and scientists have known this for almost 40 years.

Mental Wellness











Neuroplasticity & Mental Wellness: Our Path Forward

Illustration by Hendrasu (Shutterstock)




Illustration by Hendrasu (Shutterstock)
I am a member of the Mental Wellness Initiative of the
 
Global Wellness Institute. We recently published
our 
White Paper — Mental Wellness: Pathways, Evidence
and Horizons. I contributed a section on neuroplasticity,
which will be shared in the following and upcoming posts.

Mental wellness refers to our psychological and emotional health.
The term also encompasses the general sense of well-being in the physical,
social, occupational, spiritual, financial, and environmental aspects of our lives.
It is an active lifelong 
process that involves making conscious and intentional choices
toward living a healthy, 
purposeful, and fulfilling life. It enables us to realize our potential,
cope with daily stresses, work productively, and contribute meaningfully to our community
and society./.../

Wednesday, November 14, 2018

Hot Bath

Can’t Exercise? Taking a Hot Bath Improves Inflammation and Metabolism

by Neuroscience News
For those who find it difficult to exercise, taking a hot bath can help improve inflammation and glucose levels, a new study reports.

La vida es sueño!!!

Recebi de meu amigo e colega Marcelo Blaya |Peres

La vida es sueño!!!
 De Pedro Calderón de la Barca
QUE ES LA VIDA? UN FRENESI !
QUE ES LA VIDA? UNA ILUSION,
UNA SOMBRA, UNA FICCION.
Y EL MAYOR BIEN ES PEQUEÑO,
Y TODA LA VIDA ES SUEÑO
Y LOS SUEÑOS, SUEÑOS SON !!!

Aging and Micorobioma

Immunity Connects Gut Bacteria and Aging

by Neuroscience News
Researchers have identified a mechanism by which immune system problems can cause commensal dysbiosis, which promotes age related pathologies.

Memory

The art of memory


Published:November 06, 2018DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(18)30430-7

‘I think it is all a matter of love; the more you love a memory the stronger and stranger it becomes”Vladimir Nabokov
In 1950, while writing his autobiographical memoir Speak, Memory, the Russian novelist Vladimir Nabokov encountered a problem. A master of fictions, the great writer turned his pen to the events of his life and began to consider the validity of his, self-confessed, slippery memory. Nabokov's doubts, however, did not concern his capacity for recollection. Instead, he considered the plasticity of memory—the phenomenon of our own brains glazing our real-time impressions with their own unique watermark, altering our perception of the truth of our own experiences. Committed to paper, Nabokov's memories (unlike in his own lifetime) remain fixed in place—unaffected by the processes of memory consolidation and recollection—where they will stay for the rest of time.
In Memory Palace, a major group exhibition to mark the 25th anniversary of the White Cube gallery (London, UK), curators Susan May and Susanna Greeves sought to achieve a similar effect by showcasing artworks on memory by key artists that have been featured in the gallery's past exhibitions. Spanning both London White Cube sites (Bermondsey and Mason's Yard), the exhibition explores this vast subject through the perspectives of over 40 artists, and has been divided into six themes: historical, autobiographical, traces, transcription, collective, and sensory.
The first of these themes, historical, explores the political and sociological events that influence collective memory. Co-curator Greeves describes how “the memories set down in the official record of history [are] in fact the narrative of the prevailing power”. She states that “one of art's important abilities is in recovering the voices—the narratives that may have been erased or forgotten by history”. Immediately as the visitor enters the first room, they are confronted by Strata Poem in Red from Theaster Gates' 2011 In Event of a Race Riot series. Renowned for using discarded everyday materials to highlight themes of historical injustice and social responsibility, the Chicago-born artist's Strata Poem in Red is made up entirely of decommissioned fire hoses—a material which, for many, is synonymous with memories of truncheons and police violence amid the turbulent struggle for civil rights in the USA.
Opposite Gates' installation, in quiet contrast, hang two silk gowns from Colombian artist Doris Salcedo's 2014 Disrememberedseries. This seemingly understated piece might come as a surprise to those more familiar with Salcedo's ambitiously large installation pieces, such as Shibboleth (2007), in which she ripped open the entire length of the Turbine Room floor of the Tate Modern gallery (London) with a deep fissure to convey the fragmented experiences of immigrants displaced in the first world. Inspired by interviews with parents who had lost children to gun violence, Disremembered serves as a tangible memoriam to these lost lives while also commenting on societal expectations that might limit open discussion of traumatic memories. Looking closer, the visitor sees that each gown, hanging ghost-like, is in fact strewn with thousands of tiny needles that would make the garments agonising to wear.
For Berlin-based artist Magnus Plessen, also featured alongside Gates and Salcedo in the historical section, art is a means of exploring the forgotten personal stories of soldiers that have been physically disfigured from their experiences of war. Inspired by Ernst Friedrich's shocking 1924 photograph series of grossly deformed soldiers returning home from duty, Plessen's 1914 paintings use starkly coloured layered cut-outs to dramatically distort body shapes and create a heightened sense of imbalance and confusion. “As many of these men were so disfigured from their original state, the memories of themselves from before the injuries must have felt like they belonged to another person.” The distorted, unrecognisable faces featured in Plessen's paintings almost serve to flip Friedrich's camera on ourselves—making the visitor feel like their own perceptions and past experiences have become permanently disfigured following personal tragedy. In doing so, Plessen's paintings also force the visitor to reflect on the ongoing personal destruction caused by war and the silent battles that ex-military personnel continue to fight while attempting to readjust to civil society.