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Tuesday, October 17, 2017

circadian rhythm

The 2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to Jeffrey Hall, Michael Rosbash, and Michael Young. Talha Burki reports.
The 2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been jointly awarded to Jeffrey Hall, Michael Rosbash, and Michael Young for their work in uncovering the mechanism that underpins the circadian rhythm. In a statement announcing the award on Oct 2, the Nobel Assembly noted that the three winners “were able to peek inside our biological clock and elucidate its inner workings”. In doing so, the laureates have opened up a field of study with implications for many disorders and diseases.
“The problem of the circadian rhythm had puzzled people for a long time”, recalls Young. It was clearly some kind of internal system, since plants and animals kept in the dark continued to follow the same rhythm. “The question was: what was the clock made from? What was the quartz crystal that kept circadian time?” Rosbash told The Lancet. In the early 1980s, he and Hall were working at Brandeis University in Waltham, MA, USA. Rosbash remains there, and Hall has now retired. Meanwhile, Young was at Rockefeller University, New York City, NY, USA, where he still runs a laboratory.
“The real star of this story is the fruit fly”, said Rosbash. “Jeff had been working as a fruit fly geneticist since his graduate days—it was through my friendship with him that I got involved in all this.”

Seymour Benzer and Ronald Konopka had already shown that mutations in a specific gene in fruit flies either obliterated their inner clock or disrupted its speed. “It was a fascinating question: what could be sitting on those chromosomes that could be mutated to change the clock in such a significant fashion?” said Young. In 1984, the two laboratories delivered the same answer. They identified the period gene that controlled the circadian rhythm in fruit flies.

Hall and Rosbash went on to decipher the central mechanism. Period encodes a protein that builds up at night and degrades during the day—it follows a circadian rhythm, in other words. “We discovered that the production of the protein was turned off by the protein itself; it was a negative feedback loop”, said Rosbash. Young clarified how the loop functioned. “We found a gene that we called timeless”, he said. “Its protein product formed a complex with the period protein product, and when it did so, it moved to the nucleus and formed the negative regulation system that was originally hypothesised.”/.../

Sunday, October 15, 2017

Marie Curie

Marie Curie: Iconic Scientist, Nobel Prize Winner…War Hero?

By Timothy J. Jorgensen, Georgetown University | October 11, 2017 2:32 pm


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Marie Curie in one of her mobile X-ray units in October 1917. (Credit: Eve Curie)

Ask people to name the most famous historical woman of science and their answer will likely be: Madame Marie Curie. Push further and ask what she did, and they might say it was something related to radioactivity. (She actually discovered the radioisotopes radium and polonium.) Some might also know that she was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize. (She actually won two.)/.../

Educação


Education

Alternative Title: instruction
Educationdiscipline that is concerned with methods of teaching and learning in schools or school-like environments as opposed to various nonformal and informal means of socialization (e.g., rural development projects and education through parent-child relationships).
Education can be thought of as the transmission of the values and accumulated knowledge of a society. In this sense, it is equivalent to what social scientists term socialization or enculturation. Children—whether conceived among New Guinea tribespeople, the Renaissance Florentines, or the middle classes of Manhattan—are born without culture. Education is designed to guide them in learning a culture, molding their behaviour in the ways of adulthood, and directing them toward their eventual role in society. In the most primitive cultures, there is often little formal learning—little of what one would ordinarily call school or classes or teachers. Instead, the entire environment and all activities are frequently viewed as school and classes, and many or all adults act as teachers. As societies grow more complex, however, the quantity of knowledge to be passed on from one generation to the next becomes more than any one person can know, and, hence, there must evolve more selective and efficient means of cultural transmission. The outcome is formal education—the school and the specialist called the teacher.
As society becomes ever more complex and schools become ever more institutionalized, educational experience becomes less directly related to daily life, less a matter of showing and learning in the context of the workaday world, and more abstracted from practice, more a matter of distilling, telling, and learning things out of context. This concentration of learning in a formal atmosphere allows children to learn far more of their culture than they are able to do by merely observing and imitating. As society gradually attaches more and more importance to education, it also tries to formulate the overall objectives, content, organization, and strategies of education. Literature becomes laden with advice on the rearing of the younger generation. In short, there develop philosophies and theories of education./.../

Saturday, October 14, 2017

Hospital Moinhos de Vento exposição histórica 90 anos


Hospital Moinhos de Vento
Foi inaugurada e aberta oficialmente a exposição "O Espetáculo da Nossa História - 90 Anos do Hospital Moinhos de Vento". A mostra conta a trajetória de uma das principais instituições gaúchas, que acaba de completar nove décadas. Saiba mais em: https://lnkd.in/dZ7kfdd
Saiba mais em: https://lnkd.in/dZ7kfdd

EPIDEMIOLOGIA: Lotufo

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Ethical Principles for Medical Research

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há 3 minutos
Ethical Principles for Medical Research The Nuremberg Code and Declaration of Helsinki provide a set of ethical principles regarding human experimentation. READ THE NUREMBERG CODE READ THE DECLARATION OF HELSINKI

Medicine: Declaration of Geneva

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há 8 minutos
October 14, 2017 The Revised Declaration of GenevaA Modern-Day Physician’s Pledge Ramin Walter Parsa-Parsi, MD, MPH1,2 Author Affiliations Article Information JAMA. Published online October 14, 2017. doi:10.1001/jama.2017.16230 A newly revised version of the Declaration of Geneva was adopted by the World Medical Association (WMA) General Assembly on October 14, 2017, in Chicago. As the contemporary successor to the 2500-year-old Hippocratic Oath, the Declaration of Geneva, which was adopted by the World Medical Association (WMA) at its second General Assembly in 1948,1 outlines in con... mais »

RBFOX and AD

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há um dia
New Mechanism Detected in Alzheimer’s Diseaseby Neuroscience News McGill researchers report RNA that encodes synaptic proteins degrades more rapidly in Alzheimer's patients. Read more of this post[image: gene networks] *N*Human cells produce thousands of different types of RNAs to carry genetic information. RNAs also decay constantly, and the balance between production and degradation determines how much of a given RNA is present in the cell. Yet scientists know relatively little about how RNA decay is controlled, largely because methods of measuring degradation have been expensive a... mais »

Nicanor Letti (+11/10/2017)

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há um dia
[image: Resultado de imagem para nicanor letti] *Professor Dr. Nicanor Letti*, renomado otorrino-laringologista, estudioso da história da Medicina, especialmente de nossa Faculdade da UFRGS. Várias contribuições podem ser visitadas num blog que manteve por algum tempo Quando Presidente do Centro Acadêmico Sarmento Leite, em 1953/4 fui Secretário de Relações e Intercâmbio de sua diretoria.

Feliz dia da Criança 2017!...1935, 1940, 1943, 1967 e 2003

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há 2 dias
1935 1940

Women: Firsts - NGM

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há 2 dias
[image: TIME FIRSTS Women Who Are Changing The World] View More TIME FIRSTS Women Who Are Changing The World $21.99 This groundbreaking collection profiles nearly 50 women across a range of endeavors: business, politics, science, sports, entertainment and more. This companion book to TIME’s multi-platform documentary, includes 15 first-person deep dives into the lives of influential women such as General Lori Robinson, the first woman to lead troops into combat, and Aretha Franklin, the first woman inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. In addition, iconic leaders in their fiel... mais »

Green Tea : AD

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há 3 dias
How Green Tea Extract Could Help Protect Against Alzheimer’sby Neuroscience News Researchers reveal a compound in green tea extract may help protect the brain against cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer's by coating toxic oligomers. Read more of this post *Neuroscience News* | October 11, 2017 at 11:18 am | Tags: amyloid-beta | URL: http://wp.me/p4sXNK-bun Comment See all comments

Youth WPD

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há 3 dias
World Population Data FOCUS ON YOUTH Every year, Population Reference Bureau (PRB) provides the latest demographic data for the world, global regions, and more than 200 countries and territories. This year we focus on the state of the world's youth—the 16 percent of the global population between 15 and 24 years old. Explore data and graphical features that illustrate the extent to which youth are poised to become productive adults.

Population Data

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há 3 dias
*New Videos on FGM/C* PRB has produced three new videos based on our wall chart, "Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: Data and Trends, Update 2017. The videos, customized for social media, explore new data from Indonesia, differences between national and regional prevalence levels, and best practices for assessing progress across generations. *Short Videos Highlight Important FGM/C Data* The videos aim to expand understanding of key data issues in FGM/C research, including the importance of looking beyond national prevalence to identify hotspots or areas within a country where FGM/C ... mais »

Health Care: SDH

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há 4 dias
Social Determinants of Health 101 for Health Care: Five Plus Five By Sanne Magnan October 09, 2017 | Discussion Paper *Figure 1* | County Health Rankings & Roadmaps | *Source: Reprinted with permission from County Health Rankings & Roadmaps, http://www.countyhealthrankings.org/our-approach (accessed July 18, 2017).*

Flu

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há 6 dias
Why can’t we cure the common cold? After thousands of years of failure, some scientists believe a breakthrough might finally be in sight. By Nicola Davison [image: A CGI image of the human rhinovirus]The common cold has the twin distinction of being both the world’s most widespread infectious disease and one of the most elusive. The name is a problem, for starters. In almost every Indo-European language, one of the words for the disease relates to low temperature, yet experiments have shown that low temperature neither increases the likelihood of catching a cold, nor the severity of s... mais »

global food crisis

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há 6 dias
A global food crisis may be less than a decade away 17:53 minutes · TEDGlobal 2017 Sara Menker quit a career in commodities trading to figure out how the global value chain of agriculture works. Her discoveries have led to some startling predictions: "We could have a tipping point in global food and agriculture if surging demand surpasses the agricultural system's structural capacity to produce food," she says. "People could starve and governments may fall." Menker's models predict that this scenario could happen in a decade -- that the world could be short 214 trillion calories per... mais »