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The 2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to Jeffrey Hall, Michael Rosbash, and Michael Young. Talha Burki reports.
The 2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been jointly awarded to Jeffrey Hall, Michael Rosbash, and Michael Young for their work in uncovering the mechanism that underpins the circadian rhythm. In a statement announcing the award on Oct 2, the Nobel Assembly noted that the three winners “were able to peek inside our biological clock and elucidate its inner workings”. In doing so, the laureates have opened up a field of study with implications for many disorders and diseases.
“The problem of the circadian rhythm had puzzled people for a long time”, recalls Young. It was clearly some kind of internal system, since plants and animals kept in the dark continued to follow the same rhythm. “The question was: what was the clock made from? What was the quartz crystal that kept circadian time?” Rosbash told The Lancet. In the early 1980s, he and Hall were working at Brandeis University in Waltham, MA, USA. Rosbash remains there, and Hall has now retired. Meanwhile, Young was at Rockefeller University, New York City, NY, USA, where he still runs a laboratory.
“The real star of this story is the fruit fly”, said Rosbash. “Jeff had been working as a fruit fly geneticist since his graduate days—it was through my friendship with him that I got involved in all this.”
Seymour Benzer and Ronald Konopka had already shown that mutations in a specific gene in fruit flies either obliterated their inner clock or disrupted its speed. “It was a fascinating question: what could be sitting on those chromosomes that could be mutated to change the clock in such a significant fashion?” said Young. In 1984, the two laboratories delivered the same answer. They identified the period gene that controlled the circadian rhythm in fruit flies. Hall and Rosbash went on to decipher the central mechanism. Period encodes a protein that builds up at night and degrades during the day—it follows a circadian rhythm, in other words. “We discovered that the production of the protein was turned off by the protein itself; it was a negative feedback loop”, said Rosbash. Young clarified how the loop functioned. “We found a gene that we called timeless”, he said. “Its protein product formed a complex with the period protein product, and when it did so, it moved to the nucleus and formed the negative regulation system that was originally hypothesised.”/.../
Ask people to name the most famous historical woman of science and their answer will likely be: Madame Marie Curie. Push further and ask what she did, and they might say it was something related to radioactivity. (She actually discovered the radioisotopes radium and polonium.) Some might also know that she was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize. (She actually won two.)/.../
Education, discipline that is concerned with methods of teaching and learning in schools or school-like environments as opposed to various nonformal and informal means of socialization (e.g., rural development projects and education through parent-child relationships).
Education can be thought of as the transmission of the values and accumulated knowledge of a society. In this sense, it is equivalent to what social scientists term socialization or enculturation. Children—whether conceived among New Guinea tribespeople, the Renaissance Florentines, or the middle classes of Manhattan—are born without culture. Education is designed to guide them in learning a culture, molding their behaviour in the ways of adulthood, and directing them toward their eventual role in society. In the most primitive cultures, there is often little formal learning—little of what one would ordinarily call school or classes or teachers. Instead, the entire environment and all activities are frequently viewed as school and classes, and many or all adults act as teachers. As societies grow more complex, however, the quantity of knowledge to be passed on from one generation to the next becomes more than any one person can know, and, hence, there must evolve more selective and efficient means of cultural transmission. The outcome is formal education—the school and the specialist called the teacher.
As society becomes ever more complex and schools become ever more institutionalized, educational experience becomes less directly related to daily life, less a matter of showing and learning in the context of the workaday world, and more abstracted from practice, more a matter of distilling, telling, and learning things out of context. This concentration of learning in a formal atmosphere allows children to learn far more of their culture than they are able to do by merely observing and imitating. As society gradually attaches more and more importance to education, it also tries to formulate the overall objectives, content, organization, and strategies of education. Literature becomes laden with advice on the rearing of the younger generation. In short, there develop philosophies and theories of education./.../
Foi inaugurada e aberta oficialmente a exposição "O Espetáculo da Nossa História - 90 Anos do Hospital Moinhos de Vento".
A mostra conta a trajetória de uma das principais instituições gaúchas, que acaba de completar nove décadas.
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Ethical Principles for Medical Research The Nuremberg Code and Declaration of Helsinki provide a set of ethical principles regarding human experimentation. READ THE NUREMBERG CODE READ THE DECLARATION OF HELSINKI
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