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Sunday, June 26, 2016

Retina Rods

Testing The Theory of How Rods in the Retina Originated

Summary: A new study reports the retinas from our earliest vertebrate ancestors had cone like receptors, allowing them to see both in daylight and at night.
Source: NIH/National Eye Institute.
Genesis of our rod-dominant retina may explain ancestors’ survival through ‘nocturnal bottleneck’.
Image shows rods and cones in the retina.
This is a confocal microscope image of rod and cone photoreceptors in a human retina. Fluorescent probes have been used to identify rod photoreceptors (green) and cone photoreceptors and horizontal cells (red). image is credited to National Eye Institute./.../
Retinas from our earliest vertebrate ancestors had cone-like photoreceptors, presumably allowing them to see in daylight, but little ability to see at night. Then, millions of years ago in the Mesozoic era, and in relatively short order, mammals emerged that had retinas with predominantly rod photoreceptors, allowing for them to see at night perhaps to hunt for food while their dinosaur predators were dozing. Now a new study led by researchers the National Eye Institute suggests how the genesis of rod photoreceptors may have occurred to give rise to nocturnal mammals.
The findings address a key piece of the evolution puzzle: How did early mammals so quickly evolve to have highly sensitive night vision? They also suggest how mammals evolved past the “nocturnal bottleneck”, a theory that attempts to explain why most mammals today are either nocturnal or at least able to see in dim light. As it turns out, seeing well at night not only enabled our ancestors to survive, but it allowed them to thrive, so much so that their retinal traits were well preserved and passed on through millions of years of evolution.
The study findings address another mystery: Why are rods the dominant photoreceptors in our retinas? “Despite the fact that sharp, acute vision would seem to be more important to our diurnal lifestyle, our retinas are predominantly made up of rods; only 5 percent of the retina’s photoreceptors are cones,” said the collaborative study’s lead investigator, Anand Swaroop, Ph.D., chief of NEI’s Neurobiology-Neurodegeneration and Repair Laboratory. “The simplest explanation that we have is that this excess of rods in the majority of mammals were recruited from cones to overcome this nocturnal bottleneck.”
By studying mice, Swaroop and his team observed that a certain type of cone cell could be coaxed into becoming a rod photoreceptor within days after birth. They hypothesized that this transformation of a cone into a rod cell was regulated by a protein called Nrl, which binds to DNA and directs a retinal cell that is fated to become a cone to become a rod instead. The team had long observed that when mice are bred to have loss of Nrl, they fail to develop rods in their retina.
In the current study, they tested their theory by isolating rod cells from normal wild-type mice and sequencing their expressed genes. Genetically, the rod cells contained evidence of cone gene expression, but the expression of these cone genes diminishes once the rod cell matures. “This expression of cone cell genes is a kind of footprint indicating that the rod cells may have originated from cone cells,” Swaroop explained. Studies of mouse retina during key stages of development following birth supported their theory that early in development cone genes are expressed, but this expression is turned off once Nrl redirects the cell to become a rod, and the rod matures.
Additional evidence was generated by tracing the lineage of rod and cone cells in the mouse retina. Transgenic mouse lines were bred that allowed the researchers to permanently tag cone-related proteins in the retina of their offspring. Those cells could then be traced from birth, allowing the researchers to confirm that the majority of rods in mice have cone-cell activity during their development.
Original Research: Full open access research for “Recruitment of Rod Photoreceptors from Short-Wavelength-Sensitive Cones during the Evolution of Nocturnal Vision in Mammals” by Jung-Woong Kim, Hyun-Jin Yang, Adam Phillip Oel, Matthew John Brooks, Li Jia, David Charles Plachetzki, Wei Li, William Ted Allison, and Anand Swaroop in Developmental Cell. Published online June 20 2016 doi:10.1016/j.devcel.2016.05.023

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