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Monday, November 30, 2015

UN Climate change talks

The United Nations climate change talks, explained in 4 charts
The United Nations climate change talks, explained in 4 charts
2 min read • 9 hours ago / The Washington Post The intent of the United Nations — the diplomatic phoenix that emerged from ashes of World War II — was that countries would have a central place to com... read 

Books 2015

Here they are -- our favorite books for 2015. As always, it's books we read (or, for some of the lengthier tomes, finished reading) this year, but not necessarily books that were published this year. They are listed below, but not in any order of preference. If you wish to read an excerpt from any of the books mentioned click on the link.
We hope you find this list to be helpful!
 How Star Wars Conquered the Universe: The Past, Present, and Future of a Multibillion Dollar Franchise
Author: Chris Taylor
Publisher: Basic Books

Well ... the seventh Star Wars film will soon be released. And I'm a Star Wars fan. So I must commend this book as an indulgence for any of you who are also Star Wars fans.
And here's just one tidbit -- the original Star Wars plot was influenced in part by Lucas's objection to the heavy-handed U.S. presence in Vietnam. In other words -- at least in some measure -- the Empire was modeled on the United States and the rebels were inspired by the resistance of the North Vietnamese.
In How Star Wars Conquered the Universe, Taylor traces the series from the difficult birth of the original film through its sequels, the franchise's death and rebirth, the prequels, and the preparations for a new trilogy. In no small part, this book is a biography of George Lucas himself./.../

100 Notable Books of 2015

The year’s notable fiction, poetry and nonfiction, selected by the editors of The New York Times Book Review.

Fiction & Poetry

BEATLEBONE. By Kevin Barry. (Doubleday, $24.95.) In razor-sharp prose, Barry’s novel imagines John Lennon in 1978, on a journey through the west of Ireland in search of his ­creative self, conversing with an Irish driver.
THE BEAUTIFUL BUREAUCRAT. By Helen Phillips. (Holt, $25.) An administrative worker’s experiences pose existential questions in Phillips’s riveting, drolly ­surreal debut novel./.../

Human Blood

celulas do sangue
Um novo estudo da Universidade de Toronto, no Canadá, pode mudar tudo que sabíamos sobre a forma como o sangue humano é produzido dentro do corpo.
As conclusões desafiam ideias que estão em vigor desde 1960, e podem levar a novos tratamentos mais eficazes em uma série de condições.
New discovery changes everything we know about how blood is made
It could be time to rewrite the textbooks.
9 NOV 2015
Stem-cell scientists have upended current thinking on the way human blood is produced inside the body, opening the way for new studies and new treatments. The findings of principal investigator John Dick and his team from the University of Toronto in Canada challenge ideas that have been in place since the 1960s./.../

Saving Capitalism

Robert B. Reich
by Robert B. Reich
Knopf, 279 pp., $26.95

Robert B. Reich; drawing by James Ferguson
Back in 1991, in what now seems like a far more innocent time, Robert Reich published an influential book titled The Work of Nations, which among other things helped land him a cabinet post in the Clinton administration. It was a good book for its time—but time has moved on. And the gap between that relatively sunny take and Reich’s latest, Saving Capitalism, is itself an indicator of the unpleasant ways America has changed./.../

Sunday, November 29, 2015

genetic switch for brain

Master genetic switch for brain development discovered
November 24, 2015

Figure 1: Cells in which NeuroD1 is turned on are reprogrammed to become neurons. Cell nuclei are shown in blue (Höchst stain) and neurons, with their characteristic long processes, are shown in red (stained with neuronal marker TUJ1). (credit: A. Pataskar/J. Jung & V. Tiwari) Scientists at the Institute of Molecular Biology (IMB) in Mainz, Germany have unraveled a complex regulatory mechanism that explains how a single gene, NeuroD1, can drive the formation of brain cells. The research, published in The EMBO Journal, is an important step towards a better understanding of how the brain develops and may lead to breakthroughs in … more…

Ants collective intelligence

Army ants’ ‘living’ bridges suggest collective intelligence
November 25, 2015

Researchers from Princeton University and the New Jersey Institute of Technology report for the first time that the "living" bridges army ants of the species Eciton hamatum (pictured) build with their bodies are more sophisticated than scientists knew. The ants automatically assemble with a level of collective intelligence that could provide new insights into animal behavior and even help in the development of intuitive robots that can cooperate as a group. (credit: Courtesy of Matthew Lutz, Princeton University, and Chris Reid, University of Sydney) 
Could we use ant-based rules to program swarms of simple robots to build bridges and other structures by connecting to each other?
Researchers from Princeton University and the New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) report for the first time that army ants of the species Eciton hamatum that form “living” bridges across breaks and gaps in the forest floor are more sophisticated than scientists knew. The ants exhibit a level of collective intelligence that could provide new insights … more…

2734 - AMICOR 18

Oliver Sacks|GratitudeOliver Sacks on Gratitude, the Measure of Living, and the Dignity of Dying
I have been a sentient being, a thinking animal, on this beautiful
planet, and that in itself as been an enormous privilege and adventure.”

High Amyloid - Dementia

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há 3 horas
Medscape Medical News > Neurology High Amyloid Signals Cognitive Decline in Normal Population Sue Hughes November 27, 2015 EDITORS' RECOMMENDATIONS - Amyloid Scans Increase Treatment Rate After Inconclusive PET - Anxiety, Amyloid Combo a 'Double Whammy' for Cognition - Amyloid and Depression: A Risky Combo in Cognitive Decline My Alerts You have already selected "Alzheimer Disease" for My Alerts - Add Other Topics RELATED DRUGS & DISEASES - Alzheimer Disease Imaging - Alzheimer Disease - Alzheimer Disease in Down Syndrome Elevated amyloid levels were associated wi... mais »

Japanese Study of Health, Occupation, and Psychosocial Factors Related Equity (J-HOPE)

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há 15 horas
Does an advantageous occupational position make women happier in contemporary Japan? Findings from the Japanese Study of Health, Occupation, and Psychosocial Factors Related Equity (J-HOPE) *ARTICLE* · NOVEMBER 2015 with 57 READS DOI: 10.1016/j.ssmph.2015.09.002 - 1st Maki Umeda - 2nd Anne Mcmunn 28.53 · University College London - + 2 3rd Noriko Cable 29.55 · University College London - Last Michael G Marmot 53.97 · University College London SHOW MORE AUTHORS (2) ABSTRACT Occupational position is one of the determinants of psychological health, but this asso...mais »

Host-pathogen and related species interactions

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há um dia
Database of host-pathogen and related species interactions, and their global distribution - Maya Wardeh - , Claire Risley - , Marie Kirsty McIntyre - , Christian Setzkorn - & Matthew Baylis - Affiliations - Contributions - Corresponding authors - *Scientific Data* 2, Article number: 150049 (2015) - ​doi:10.1038/sdata.2015.49 Received 29 May 2015 Accepted 05 August 2015 Published online 15 September 2015Article tools - PDF - ISA tab - Citation - Reprints - Rights & permissions - Article metrics Abstract - Abstract • ... mais »

GDB: living with disabilities - Full text, tables and figures

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há um dia
Volume 386, No. 10009, p2145–2191, 28 November 2015 Articles Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 306 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 188 countries, 1990–2013: quantifying the epidemiological transition GBD 2013 DALYs and HALE Collaborators*, Christopher J L Murray , Ryan M Barber , Kyle J Foreman , Ayse Abbasoglu Ozgoren* , Foad Abd-Allah* , Semaw F Abera* , Victor Aboyans* , Jerry P Abraham* , Ibrahim Abubakar* , Laith J Abu-Raddad* , Niveen M Abu-Rmeileh* , Tom Achoki* , Ilana N Ackerman* , Zanfina Ademi* ,... mais »

GBD: living with disability

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há um dia
Volume 386, No. 10009, p2118, 28 November 2015 Editorial The Global Burden of Diseases: living with disability The Lancet [image: Article has an altmetric score of 33] DOI: Share on mendeleyShare on facebookShare on twitterShare on emailMore Sharing Services [image: show]Article Info © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. - Summary - Full Text - Tables and Figures The UN observes the International Day of Persons with Disabilities on Dec 3, 2015. This year, three themes are highlighted in the agenda: making cities inclusive for... mais »

Food for thought

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há 2 dias
Could a Balanced Diet Alleviate Mental Illness?[image: thanksgiving dinner] This might sweeten the pill for eating right. While mainstream psychiatry has yet to embrace its potentially curative properties, a nascent research field has found intriguing links betweenfood and mood. Studies have shown that omega-3 fatty acids can reduce schizophrenia risk, and nutrient cocktails can lower anxiety. Although it’s too soon to tell, the possible paradigm shift could allow the nearly one in five American adults who suffer from mental illness to access treatment without the weight gain, list... mais »

Janette Sadik-Khan

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há 3 dias
*Enviado pela AMICOR Maria Inês Reinert Azambuja* *Fronteiras do Pensamento* Mudando de marcha: um mapa para ruas mais seguras e cidades mais inteligentes por Luciana Thomé - Porto Alegre - 23.11.2015 ------------------------------

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há 3 dias
[image: 5 Weak Words to Avoid & What to Use Instead (Infographic)] Source:

Copper and Cancer

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há 3 dias
Starving the beast11/24/2015You are subscribed to News - All NSF News for National Science Foundation Update. This information has recently been updated, and is now available. Starving the beast 11/24/2015 10:41 AM EST [image: cancer cells and copper] As any good Star Trek fan knows, Mr. Spock was a "green-blooded Vulcan" because his hemoglobin was copper-based, unlike our iron-based human cells. But even humans have a little bit of copper in their blood. Now, a new paper based on research funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) explores the role copper can play in feeding -- ... mais »

achutti na lata

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há 4 dias
Zero Hora 24 de novembro de 2015 | N° 18365 CONTRACAPA | Roger Lerina - achutti na lata (de Luiz Eduardo Robinson Achutti, nosso filho) Um dos grandes nomes da fotografia no Estado, LUIZ EDUARDO ROBINSON ACHUTTI está completando 40 anos de carreira – e, para comemorar a data, selecionou suas fotos preferidas captadas neste tempão todo. O resultado é uma bela edição especial, batizada pelo fotógrafo e professor universitário de FOTOS DA LATA – referência àquelas famosas latas de maconha que vieram dar no litoral brasileiro nos anos 1980. São ... mais »

Women and Dementia

Aloyzio AchuttiemAMICOR - Há 5 dias
[image: Memory] Health After 50 Fast Facts: Women and Dementia Comments *(0)* - Men and women who develop Alzheimer’s disease may have two completely different experiences. Recent studies that have spotlighted women and initial memory complaints point out that their memory complaints may signal early Alzheimer’s—and a descent into dementia that is twice as fast as it is for men. Of the 5.4 million Americans with Alzheimer’s disease, it’s currently estimated that 3.4 million are women. According to the Alzheimer’s Association: - Women with mild cognitive impair... mais »

Oliver Sacks

Oliver Sacks on Gratitude, the Measure of Living, and the Dignity of Dying

“I have been a sentient being, a thinking animal, on this beautiful planet, and that in itself has been an enormous privilege and adventure.”

Oliver Sacks on Gratitude, the Measure of Living, and the Dignity of Dying
“Living has yet to be generally recognized as one of the arts,” proclaimed a 1924 guide to the art of living. That one of the greatest scientists of our time should be one of our greatest teacher in that art is nothing short of a blessing for which we can only be grateful — and that’s precisely what Oliver Sacks (July 9, 1933–August 30, 2015), a Copernicus of the mind and a Dante of medicine who turned the case study into a poetic form, became over the course of his long and fully lived life.
In his final months, Dr. Sacks reflected on his unusual existential adventure and his courageous dance with death in a series of lyrical New York Times essays, posthumously published in the slim yet enormously enchanting book Gratitude (public library), edited by his friend and assistant of thirty years, Kate Edgar, and his partner, the photographer Bill Hayes.

Saturday, November 28, 2015

High Amyloid - Dementia

Elevated amyloid levels were associated with worse cognition and greater cognitive decline and neurodegeneration in a new study of the general population of persons with normal cognition at baseline.
"We found that individuals in the general population who are amyloid positive but cognitively normal do have an increased risk of progressing to cognitive impairment,” lead author Ronald C. Petersen, MD, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, commented to Medscape Medical News.
"This occurs at the rate of about 8% to 10% per year, compared to a rate of 1% to 2% in the general population who are not amyloid positive,” he said. In contrast, previous studies of patients with mild cognitive impairment at baseline have shown a rate of progression to dementia of about 15% to 20% per year.
Dr Petersen said the study, published online in JAMA Neurology on November 23, was conducted to address the question of how elevated amyloid levels influenced cognition and other relevant biomarkers in cognitively normal people.
"Some previous studies have suggested that the presence of amyloid above a certain threshold (amyloid positive) signals a higher risk of developing Alzheimer's disease," he explained. "But these studies have mainly been conducted in a clinical trial population, and people who apply to be in such studies are often at higher risk ― for example, they may have a strong family history. We wanted to look at this question in the general population, and this study is based on a random sample of the community."
He noted that the rate of change seen in amyloid-positive individuals in the general population is not as high as that seen in clinical trial populations. "But we expected that may be the case. Still, the presence of amyloid was associated with a quicker progression to cognitive impairment than amyloid-negative individuals, but this is not overly dramatic."
The current analysis involved 564 cognitively normal individuals (median age, 78 years) from the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging, a population-based longitudinal study.
At baseline, participants underwent MRI scanning; fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scanning to assess glucose metabolism; and Pittsburgh compound B–position emission tomography (PET-PiB) scanning to assess amyloid levels. Participants also underwent one clinical follow-up assessment. A subset of 286 individuals underwent serial imaging.
Elevated amyloid level was defined as a standardized uptake value ratio greater than 1.5 on PiB-PET. At baseline, 179 individuals (31.7%) had elevated amyloid levels, which were associated with poorer cognition in all domains measured, reduced hippocampal volume, and slower glucose metabolism.
After follow-up, it was found that individuals with elevated amyloid levels at baseline had a greater rate of cognitive decline in all domains (0.04 to 0.09 z-score units per year) except language. They also had greater rates of amyloid accumulation (1.6% per year), hippocampal atrophy (30 mm3 per year), and ventricular enlargement (565 mm3 per year).
During a median follow-up period of 2.5 years, 84 individuals progressed clinically to mild cognitive impairment, and four progressed to dementia. Elevated amyloid levels were found to be associated with an increased risk for mild cognitive impairment.
The researchers note that if amyloid status was ignored, APOE4 carrier status was generally associated with greater changes in the continuous cognitive measures over time. But with both amyloid and APOE4as predictors, amyloid status was predictive of decline, and APOE4 was not, suggesting that the effect of APOE4 is largely mediated by amyloid positivity.
The authors say their findings have implications for the design of randomized clinical trials for Alzheimer's. "Individuals with clearly elevated levels of amyloid appear to be predisposed to progress clinically and on measures of neurodegeneration and can serve as a source of enrichment for clinical trials, and additional evidence of neurodegeneration may not be necessary," they conclude.
Amyloid Test a "Hot Button"
Dr Petersen said it was premature to make any clinical recommendations on the basis of these findings.
"The idea of having an amyloid test is a hot button right now," he commented. "Three such tests have been approved, but none are reimbursed by third-party payers. However, experts in the field feel they could be useful in patients who have mild cognitive impairment to identify those who might have a quicker decline or in patients with unusual dementias when we don't know exactly what we are dealing with."
He does not recommend that such tests be used in cognitively normal people at present. "This is because we are not exactly certain what to tell them if it is positive,” he noted. “We don't know the natural course. They could start to decline in 1, 2, 5, or 10 years. We need to watch these data unveil themselves over the next few years."
But the situation would be different if a preventive agent was made available."That would be a whole different game. Then an amyloid test would make sense for many," Dr Petersen said.
"At present, all we can recommend is that people pay attention to their lifestyle ― engage in aerobic exercise, stay intellectually active, eat a healthy diet, stay involved in social relationships. I know this sounds a bit 'Mom and Pop,' but it will likely be effective," he added.
This study was supported by grants the National Institute on Aging, the National Institutes of Health, and the Mayo Foundation. Dr Petersen has served on a data monitoring committee for Pfizer Inc and Janssen Alzheimer Immunotherapy, has worked as a consultant for Merck Inc, Roche Inc, Biogen Inc, Eli Lilly and Company, and Genentech Inc, has received royalties through the publishing of his bookMild Cognitive Impairment (Oxford University Press, 2003), and has received research support from grants from the National Institutes of Health.
JAMA Neurol. Published online November 23, 2015. Abstract

Japanese Study of Health, Occupation, and Psychosocial Factors Related Equity (J-HOPE)

Does an advantageous occupational position make women happier in contemporary Japan? Findings from the Japanese Study of Health, Occupation, and Psychosocial Factors Related Equity (J-HOPE)

DOI: 10.1016/j.ssmph.2015.09.002


Occupational position is one of the determinants of psychological health, but this association may differ for men and women depending on the social context. In contemporary…